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Sökning: WFRF:(Johansson Roger) > (2020-2021)

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  • Johansson, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • Det moderna i skolan och skolan i det moderna
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Den moderna skolans framväxt : 1960-talets förändringar i de gymnasiala skolformerna - 1960-talets förändringar i de gymnasiala skolformerna. - : Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap, Lunds universitet. - 2002-6323. - 9789178957736 - 9789178957743 ; 15, s. 9-13
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Om den moderna gymnasieskolans plats i samhällsomvandlingen vid 1960-talets ingång
  • Johansson, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • I Turning Torsos tidevarv
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Malmö stads historia : Nionde delen 1990-2020, band 1 och 2 - Nionde delen 1990-2020, band 1 och 2. - : Kira Förlag. - 9789187875441 ; 9, s. 13-37
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Inledning till Malmö stads historia
  • Johansson, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • Malmö universitet – tillkomst och utveckling
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Malmö stads historia : Nionde delen 1990-2020, band 1 och 2 - Nionde delen 1990-2020, band 1 och 2. - : Kira Förlag. - 9789187875441 ; 9, s. 57-82
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Malmö universitetshistoria åren 1995-2020
  • Johansson, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • Malmös skolor under en turbulent tid
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Malmö stads historia : Nionde delen 1990-2020, band 1 och 2 - Nionde delen 1990-2020, band 1 och 2. - : Kira Förlag. - 9789187875441 ; 9, s. 27-55
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Utvecklingen i Malmö skolor åren 1990-2020
  • Johansson, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • Gaze position regulates memory accessibility during competitive memory retrieval
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cognition. - : Elsevier. - 0010-0277. ; 197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While previous research has demonstrated that gaze position can increase the accessibility of previous memories when reconstructing the past (Johansson & Johansson, 2014), the present study tested whether such gaze behavior can assist in selecting target memories in the face of competing memories. An adapted retrieval practice paradigm was used, where participants were engaged in selective retrieval while looking at locations that overlapped with the encoding location of either the target item or the competing item. Replicating previous findings, we show that encoding-retrieval compatibility in gaze positions increases the likelihood of successful remembering. We furthermore provide novel evidence that looking at locations where competing items were encoded during retrieval practice induces forgetting of the competitors during subsequent tests of memory. Corroborating evidence from changes in pupil size suggests that such gaze induced forgetting is modulated by the increased demands to successfully resolve interference from competing memories. This study represents the first demonstration that gaze position can both up- and downregulate memory accessibility during competitive memory retrieval and offers novel insights into the underlying dynamics.
  • Johansson, Roger, et al. (författare)
  • How encoding-retrieval overlap in gaze positions influences episodic memory accessibility in the “real world”
  • 2020
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An extensive body of research has shown that episodic remembering involves spontaneous eye movements that largely reproduce the gaze patterns that were present during encoding (e.g. Brandt & Stark, 1997; Johansson, et al., 2006; 2012; Johansson & Johansson, 2014; Richardson & Spivey, 2000). We have further demonstrated that gaze positions showing compatibility between encoding and retrieval increase the likelihood of successful remembering (Johansson & Johansson, 2014, 2020). However, to date, there is virtually no research on how gaze direction influences episodic remembering outside the laboratory. The aim of the present project was, therefore, to systematically investigate this effect in a “real-world” scenario. In a first experiment, participants (N=40, equipped with a mobile eye tracker) entered a room where they were faced with six framed stimuli at six different locations. Each stimulus comprised a letter in the center and an associated item to the left or right side of this letter. Participants were given 60 s to freely inspect and encode how each letter was associated with the items’ three features (shape, color and location). Participants then exited the room and engaged in a two-minute distracter task before they re-entered the room. They were now faced with the six frames again, but this time only the letter cue was present. They were then given 90 s to orally recall the associated items’ features in a free-recall procedure. For each participant, the same encoding-retrieval procedure was repeated over four rounds. During retrieval, the framed letters were either located in the same location as they were encoded in (congruent) or shuffled around to different locations (incongruent). Results overall replicated our previous lab-finding, with superior retrieval performance in the congruent condition. However, the effect was virtually absent for the participants who faced an incongruent condition in their first round of retrieval. In four follow-up experiments, we manipulated the number of congruent and incongruent frames within trials over the four rounds (0, 2, 4 or 6 congruent frames) and also introduced different degrees of interference between associated items. Interference was created by using two exemplars of each shape and each color instead of using unique shapes and unique colors across stimuli frames. In effect, this creates a situation where there are overlapping and competing features between items across frames. Collectively, the results from those follow-up experiments revealed that the congruency benefit is dependent on both contextual expectation and the need to handle interference from competing memories. Specifically, we show that the expectation of how relevant the spatial context is for the retrieval task can be both up- and down-regulated depending on previous rounds and that the congruency effect increases in accordance with the need to handle interference from competing memories. Those findings are further qualified by data from participants’ gaze patterns. In sum, we extend previous work by demonstrating that facilitatory effects of gaze direction on episodic remembering generalize to “real-world” scenarios, and we present novel findings that shed light on the underlying mechanisms.
  • Nikolaev, Andrey, et al. (författare)
  • Watching the brain build memories across eye movements: an EEG - eye-tracking coregistration study
  • 2021
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction Episodic memory allows us to revisit our past and recollect inter-related elements that characterize life events (Tulving, 1983). When forming such relational memories, we only apprehend a small part of our visual field in full acuity at a time. This limitation is overcome by shifting visual attention over a sequence of eye movements. We bind these visual “samples” of the world into a coherent episodic memory. However, little is known about how we build coherent episodic memories across eye movements. Previous studies have established crucial roles of theta and alpha oscillations in memory formation (Hanslmayr et al. 2012; Herweg et al., 2020), but lacked the necessary precision to elucidate how coherent representations are formed over time across eye movements. Here, we combine EEG and eye-tracking to investigate the buildup of episodic memory representations in natural viewing behavior. Methods Participants (N = 28) were asked to encode events with elements from three categories (faces, places, objects, Fig. 1). In each block (N = 6), nine events were presented for 10 s each. After a distractor task, memory was tested for all event-specific combinations of elements. EEG and eye movements were simultaneously recorded. Only data from the encoding phase was analyzed. A major problem in coregistration of EEG and eye movements in free viewing concerns overlapping effects of sequential saccades on EEG (Dimigen et al., 2011; Nikolaev et al., 2016). In order to overcome this, we used the deconvolution approach (Ehinger & Dimigen 2019). This regression-based method involves modelling not only experimental conditions of interest but also confounding eye movement characteristics and ordering factors, such as fixation rank, which can be “regressed out”. Before deconvolution, EEG was filtered in the theta and alpha frequency bands. The theta and alpha power were analyzed in epochs from -200 ms to +500 ms relative to the fixation onset. Results During the 10 s encoding, participants made, on average, 5.1 gaze transitions between categories. Subsequent memory performance increased with the cumulative number of gaze transitions during encoding (p < 0.001). Theta power in the interval -100+300 ms relative to the fixation onset over the frontal channels increased with time (p = 0.03) and performance (p = 0.02) (Fig. 2). Conversely, alpha power in the interval -100+300 ms over all electrodes prominently decreased with time (p = 0.002), irrespective of memory performance (Fig. 2). Next, we compared EEG for the first fixation on a category (i.e., after an inter-category saccade) with the last fixation on that category (i.e., after an intra-category saccade). The theta power in the interval -100+300 ms was significantly higher for the first than the last fixation (p < 0.001) and was more prominent for high than low memory performance (p < 0.001) (Fig. 1). The alpha power in the interval 0+500 ms was lower for the last than for the first fixation (p < 0.001), and lower for high than low memory performance at the last fixation (p = 0.02). Conclusions The frontal theta increase over the time of the event and for successful retrieval support the proposed pivotal role of theta synchronization in the formation of episodic memories (Clouter et al. 2017) and extends it to the binding of event elements across eye movements. The prominent theta effects in the interval of saccade execution and the larger theta power for fixations after inter- than intra-category saccades suggest that binding occurs via association of pre- and post-saccadic information at gaze transitions between categories. Alpha desynchronization over the time course of encoding may reflect an increasing amount of information (Hanslmayr et al. 2016) that is captured at each sequential fixation. The larger desynchronization associated with higher performance for fixations after intra- than inter-category saccades indicates active engagement of cortical areas in information acquisition during encoding.
  • Zahed, Hana, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology of 40 blood biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation, and renal and endothelial function among cancer-free older adults
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40–80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was − 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI − 0.98; − 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.
  • Bergvall, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Continuous Slurry Hydrocracking of Biobased Fast Pyrolysis Oil
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Energy & Fuels. - : American Chemical Society. - 0887-0624 .- 1520-5029. ; 35:3, s. 2303-2312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Co-refining of fast pyrolysis bio-oil together with fossil oil in existing refinery infrastructure is an attractive and cost-efficient route to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuel. However, due to large differences in properties between the two oils, special notice is needed to reduce process-related issues. Here, fast pyrolysis bio-oil produced from lignocellulosic biomass was co-refined with vacuum gas oil at a 20:80 weight ratio in continuous operation in a pilot-scale slurry hydrocracker in order to investigate the impact of process parameters on product quality and process performance. Mass balances together with product characterization were used to investigate product yields, product composition, and hydrodeoxygenation. Best conversion and hydrodeoxygenation of the fast pyrolysis bio-oil was achieved using an unsupported catalyst loading of 900 ppm Mo with either a low temperature (410 °C) and long residence time (2 h) or higher temperature (435 °C) and shorter residence time (1 h). These settings resulted in about 94% hydrodeoxygenation but also led to highest yield of biogenic carbon to gas phase (40-43 wt %) and lowest yield of biogenic carbon to oil fractions (53-56 wt %) as well as the water fraction (3-5 wt %). Successfully, coke yield remained low at around 0.07-0.10 wt % for all performed runs, which was comparable to the insoluble particle content in the feed due to the presence of particles in the untreated fast pyrolysis bio-oil. Co-processing pyrolysis oil with fossil oil in a slurry hydrocracker seems to be a robust process with regard to coke formation, which should lead to reduced plugging issues compared to fixed bed hydrotreaters. Although this study gives a brief understanding of the effect of process parameters on the processing of fast pyrolysis bio-oil, further research is required to find optimal process parameters and to fully comprehend the possibilities and limitations for production of transportation fuels from fast pyrolysis bio-oil using this technology.
  • Berndtsson, Emilia, et al. (författare)
  • Side Streams of Broccoli Leaves: A Climate Smart and Healthy Food Ingredient
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International journal of environmental research and public health. - : MDPI. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human consumption of fruits and vegetables are generally below recommended levels. Waste from the production, e.g., of un-used parts such as broccoli leaves and stem when producing broccoli florets for food, is a sustainability issue. In this study, broccoli leaves were analyzed for the content of various dietary fibre and phenolics, applying the Uppsala method and HPLC analyses, respectively. The results showed that broccoli leaves had comparable levels of dietary fibre (26%-32% of dry weight (DW)) and phenolic compounds (6.3-15.2 mg/g DW) to many other food and vegetables considered valuable in the human diet from a health perspective. A significant positive correlation was found among soluble dietary fibre and phenolic acids indicating possible bindings between these components. Seasonal variations affected mainly the content of conjugated phenolics, and the content of insoluble dietary fibre. This study verified the importance of the use of broccoli production side streams (leaves) as they may contribute with health promoting components to the human diet and also socio-economic and environmental benefits to the bioeconomic development in the society.
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