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Sökning: WFRF:(Jones I) > (2000-2004)

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  • Föregående 12[3]4567Nästa
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21.
  • Alcorn, J, et al. (författare)
  • Basic instrumentation for Hall A at Jefferson Lab
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 522:3, s. 294-346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The instrumentation in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was designed to study electro-and photo-induced reactions at very high luminosity and good momentum and angular resolution for at least one of the reaction products. The central components of Hall A are two identical high resolution spectrometers, which allow the vertical drift chambers in the focal plane to provide a momentum resolution of better than 2 x 10(-4). A variety of Cherenkov counters, scintillators and lead-glass calorimeters provide excellent particle identification. The facility has been operated successfully at a luminosity well in excess of 10(38) CM-2 s(-1). The research program is aimed at a variety of subjects, including nucleon structure functions, nucleon form factors and properties of the nuclear medium. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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23.
  • Martin-Sanchez, F., et al. (författare)
  • Synergy between medical informatics and bioinformatics : Facilitating genomic medicine for future health care
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Informatics. - 1532-0464 .- 1532-0480. ; 37:1, s. 30-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we review the results of BIOINFOMED, a study funded by the European Commission (EC) with the purpose to analyse the different issues and challenges in the area where Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics meet. Traditionally, Medical Informatics has been focused on the intersection between computer science and clinical medicine, whereas Bioinformatics have been predominantly centered on the intersection between computer science and biological research. Although researchers from both areas have occasionally collaborated, their training, objectives and interests have been quite different. The results of the Human Genome and related projects have attracted the interest of many professionals, and introduced new challenges that will transform biomedical research and health care. A characteristic of the 'post genomic' era will be to correlate essential genotypic information with expressed phenotypic information. In this context, Biomedical Informatics (BMI) has emerged to describe the technology that brings both disciplines (BI and MI) together to support genomic medicine. In recognition of the dynamic nature of BMI, institutions such as the EC have launched several initiatives in support of a research agenda, including the BIOINFOMED study.
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24.
  • Andres, E., et al. (författare)
  • The AMANDA neutrino telescope : Principle of operation and first results
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - : Elsevier. - 0927-6505 .- 1873-2852. ; 13:1, s. 1-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AMANDA is a high-energy neutrino telescope presently under construction at the geographical South Pole. In the Antarctic summer 1995/96, an array of 80 optical modules (OMs) arranged on 4 strings (AMANDA-B4) was deployed at depths between 1.5 and 2 km. In this paper we describe the design and performance of the AMANDA-B4 prototype, based on data collected between February and November 1996. Monte Carlo simulations of the detector response to down-going atmospheric muon tracks show that the global behavior of the detector is understood. We describe the data analysis method and present first results on atmospheric muon reconstruction and separation of neutrino candidates. The AMANDA array was upgraded with 216 OMs on 6 new strings in 1996/97 (AMANDA-B10), and 122 additional OMs on 3 strings in 1997/98.
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25.
  • Beral, V, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer - collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58515 women with breast cancer and 95067 women without the disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827 .- 0007-0920. ; 87, s. 1234-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19 - 1.45, P < 0.00001) for an intake of 35 - 44 g per day alcohol, and 1.46 (1.33 - 1.61, P < 0.00001) for greater than or equal to 45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1 % per 10 g per day, P < 0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers= 1.03, 95% CI 0.98 - 1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92 - 1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were the findings materially confounded by any of these factors. If the observed relationship for alcohol is causal, these results suggest that about 4% of the breast cancers in developed countries are attributable to alcohol. In developing countries, where alcohol consumption among controls averaged only 0.4 g per day, alcohol would have a negligible effect on the incidence of breast cancer. In conclusion, smoking has little or no independent effect on the risk of developing breast cancer; the effect of alcohol on breast cancer needs to be interpreted in the context of its beneficial effects, in moderation, on cardiovascular disease and its harmful effects on cirrhosis and cancers of the mouth, larynx, oesophagus and liver. (C) 2002 Cancer Research UK.
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26.
  • Berlow, E.L., et al. (författare)
  • Interaction strengths in food webs : Issues and opportunities
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - 0021-8790 .- 1365-2656. ; 73:3, s. 585-598
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Recent efforts to understand how the patterning of interaction strength affects both structure and dynamics in food webs have highlighted several obstacles to productive synthesis. Issues arise with respect to goals and driving questions, methods and approaches, and placing results in the context of broader ecological theory. 2. Much confusion stems from lack of clarity about whether the questions posed relate to community-level patterns or to species dynamics, and to what authors actually mean by the term 'interaction strength'. Here, we describe the various ways in which this term has been applied and discuss the implications of loose terminology and definition for the development of this field. 3. Of particular concern is the clear gap between theoretical and empirical investigations of interaction strengths and food web dynamics. The ecological community urgently needs to explore new ways to estimate biologically reasonable model coefficients from empirical data, such as foraging rates, body size, metabolic rate, biomass distribution and other species traits. 4. Combining numerical and analytical modelling approaches should allow exploration of the conditions under which different interaction strengths metrics are interchangeable with regard to relative magnitude, system responses, and species identity. 5. Finally, the prime focus on predator-prey links in much of the research to date on interaction strengths in food webs has meant that the potential significance of nontrophic interactions, such as competition, facilitation and biotic disturbance, has been largely ignored by the food web community. Such interactions may be important dynamically and should be routinely included in future food web research programmes.
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27.
  • Birks, H.H., et al. (författare)
  • The development of the aquatic ecosytem at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late glacial and early Holocene - a synthesis.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Paleolimnology. - 0921-2728 .- 1573-0417. ; 23:1, s. 91-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper synthesises the palaeoecological reconstructions, including palaeoclimatic inferences, based on the available fossil record of plants (pollen, macrofossils, mosses, diatoms) and animals (chironomids, Cladocera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, oribatid mites) in the late-glacial and early-Holocene sediments of Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, with special emphasis on changes in the aquatic ecosystem. New percentage and influx pollen diagrams for selected taxa provide insights into the terrestrial setting. The information from all the proxies is collated in a stratigraphical chart, and the inferred changes in the lake and its catchment are discussed. The individual fossil sequences are summarised by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), and sample scores on the first DCA axes are plotted against an estimated calendar-year timescale for comparison of the timing and magnitude of changes in assemblage composition. The DCA plots show that the large late-glacial biotic changes were synchronous, and were driven by the overriding forcing factor of temperature. During the early Holocene, however, the changes in different groups were more gradual and were independent of each other, showing that other factors were important and interactive, such as the inwash of dissolved and particulate material from the catchment, the base and nutrient status of the lake-water, and the internal processes of ecosystem succession and sediment accumulation. This multi-disciplinary study, with proxies for changes in the lake and in the catchment, highlights the dependence of lake biota and processes not only on regional climatic changes but also on changes in the lake catchment and on internal processes within the lake. Rates of change for each group are also estimated and compared. The reaction times to the sharp temperature changes at the start and end of the Younger Dryas were very rapid and occurred within a decade of the temperature change. Aquatic organisms tracked the temperature and environmental changes very closely, and are probably the best recorders of late-glacial climatic change in the fossil record.
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28.
  • Blumenau, A.T., et al. (författare)
  • Dislocations in hexagonal and cubic GaN
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics. - 0953-8984 .- 1361-648X. ; 12, s. 10223-10233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The structure and electronic activity of several types of dislocations in both hexagonal and cubic GaN are calculated using first-principles methods. Most of the stoichiometric dislocations investigated in hexagonal GaN do not induce deep acceptor states and thus cannot be responsible for the yellow luminescence. However, it is shown that electrically active point defects, in particular gallium vacancies and oxygen-related defect complexes, can be trapped at the stress field of the dislocations and may be responsible for this luminescence. For cubic GaN, we find the ideal stoichiometric 60° dislocation to be electrically active and the glide set to be more stable than the shuffle. The dissociation of the latter is considered
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29.
  • Blumenau, A.T., et al. (författare)
  • Straight and kinked 90° partial dislocations in diamond and 3C-SiC
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics. - 0953-8984 .- 1361-648X. ; 14:48, s. 12741-12747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Density-functional based calculations are used to investigate low energy core structures of 90° partial dislocations in diamond and 3C-SiC. In both materials dislocation glide is analysed in terms of kink formation and migration and the fundamental steps to kink migration are investigated. We find the C terminated core structure in SiC to be more mobile than the Si core. However, the Si partial is electrically active and this opens the possibility of recombination-enhanced glide under ionizing conditions or an enhanced mobility in doped material.
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30.
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