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Sökning: WFRF:(Jones I) > (2020-2023)

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71.
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72.
  • Coignard, Juliette, et al. (författare)
  • A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P<10(-8), at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers varies depending on other genetic factors. Here, the authors perform a case-only genome-wide association study and highlight novel loci associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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73.
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74.
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75.
  • Coxall, Helen K., et al. (författare)
  • The Eocene-Oligocene transition in Nanggulan, Java : lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and foraminiferal stable isotopes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Geological Society. - 0016-7649 .- 2041-479X. ; 178:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Nanggulan section in south central Java comprises open marine sediments and volcanic deposits of Eocene-Oligocene age that accumulated in a marginal basin within the young Sunda Arc complex. A new borehole captures the stratigraphy and showcases the exceptional preservation of calcareous microfossils across an apparently complete Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT), a time interval significant for the initiation of continental-scale glaciation on Antarctica. Low-resolution benthic and planktonic foraminifera oxygen and carbon stable isotopes (delta O-18 and delta C-13) record increasing delta O-18 and delta C-13 in the basal Oligocene, allowing correlation to global records. Isotopic values imply warm temperatures and relatively high nutrients along the SE Java margin. The Nanggulan EOT is a valuable archive for reconstructing ocean-climate behaviour and plankton evolution and extinction in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. The borehole also adds to understanding of the early stages of Sunda Arc volcanism.
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76.
  • Deshmukh, Harshal A., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Pancreatic Beta-Cell Glucose Sensitivity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 106:1, s. 80-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity is the slope of the plasma glucose-insulin secretion relationship and is a key predictor of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no large-scale studies looking at the genetic determinants of beta-cell glucose sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To understand the genetic determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity using genome-wide meta-analysis and candidate gene studies. DESIGN: We performed a genome-wide meta-analysis for beta-cell glucose sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic subjects from 6 independent cohorts (n = 5706). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was calculated from mixed meal and oral glucose tolerance tests, and its associations between known glycemia-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs were estimated using linear regression models. RESULTS: Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was moderately heritable (h2 ranged from 34% to 55%) using SNP and family-based analyses. GWAS meta-analysis identified multiple correlated SNPs in the CDKAL1 gene and GIPR-QPCTL gene loci that reached genome-wide significance, with SNP rs2238691 in GIPR-QPCTL (P value = 2.64 × 10-9) and rs9368219 in the CDKAL1 (P value = 3.15 × 10-9) showing the strongest association with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. These loci surpassed genome-wide significance when the GWAS meta-analysis was repeated after exclusion of the diabetic subjects. After correction for multiple testing, glycemia-associated SNPs in or near the HHEX and IGF2B2 loci were also associated with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. CONCLUSION: We show that, variation at the GIPR-QPCTL and CDKAL1 loci are key determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity.
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77.
  • Fan, H. M., et al. (författare)
  • Sulfated Progesterone Metabolites That Enhance Insulin Secretion via TRPM3 Are Reduced in Serum From Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 71:4, s. 837-852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serum progesterone sulfates were evaluated in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Serum progesterone sulfates were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in four patient cohorts: 1) the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes study; 2) London-based women of mixed ancestry and 3) U.K.-based women of European ancestry with or without GDM; and 4) 11-13 weeks pregnant women with BMI <= 25 or BMI >= 35 kg/m(2) with subsequent uncomplicated pregnancies or GDM. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was evaluated in response to progesterone sulfates in mouse islets and human islets. Calcium fluorescence was measured in HEK293 cells expressing transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 3 (TRPM3). Computer modeling using Molecular Operating Environment generated three-dimensional structures of TRPM3. Epiallopregnanolone sulfate (PM5S) concentrations were reduced in GDM (P < 0.05), in women with higher fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.010), and in early pregnancy samples from women who subsequently developed GDM with BMI >= 35 kg/m(2) (P < 0.05). In islets, 50 mu mol/L PM5S increased GSIS by at least twofold (P < 0.001); isosakuranetin (TRPM3 inhibitor) abolished this effect. PM5S increased calcium influx in TRPM3-expressing HEK293 cells. Computer modeling and docking showed identical positioning of PM5S to the natural ligand in TRPM3. PM5S increases GSIS and is reduced in GDM serum. The activation of GSIS by PM5S is mediated by TRPM3 in both mouse and human islets.
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78.
  • Filippini, J. P., et al. (författare)
  • In-Flight Gain Monitoring of SPIDER's Transition-Edge Sensor Arrays
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Low Temperature Physics. - 0022-2291 .- 1573-7357. ; 209:3-4, s. 649-657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experiments deploying large arrays of transition-edge sensors (TESs) often require a robust method to monitor gain variations with minimal loss of observing time. We propose a sensitive and non-intrusive method for monitoring variations in TES responsivity using small square waves applied to the TES bias. We construct an estimator for a TES's small-signal power response from its electrical response that is exact in the limit of strong electrothermal feedback. We discuss the application and validation of this method using flight data from SPIDER, a balloon-borne telescope that observes the polarization of the cosmic microwave background with more than 2000 TESs. This method may prove useful for future balloon- and space-based instruments, where observing time and ground control bandwidth are limited.
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79.
  • Gambrel, A. E., et al. (författare)
  • The XFaster Power Spectrum and Likelihood Estimator for the Analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background Maps
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 922:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the XFaster analysis package, a fast, iterative angular power spectrum estimator based on a diagonal approximation to the quadratic Fisher matrix estimator. It uses Monte Carlo simulations to compute noise biases and filter transfer functions and is thus a hybrid of both Monte Carlo and quadratic estimator methods. In contrast to conventional pseudo-Cℓ–based methods, the algorithm described here requires a minimal number of simulations and does not require them to be precisely representative of the data to estimate accurate covariance matrices for the bandpowers. The formalism works with polarization-sensitive observations and also data sets with identical, partially overlapping, or independent survey regions. The method was first implemented for the analysis of BOOMERanG data and also used as part of the Planck analysis. Here we describe the full, publicly available analysis package, written in Python, as developed for the analysis of data from the 2015 flight of the Spider instrument. The package includes extensions for self-consistently estimating null spectra and estimating fits for Galactic foreground contributions. We show results from the extensive validation of XFaster using simulations and its application to the Spider data set.
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