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Sökning: WFRF:(Kiss C) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Schael, S, et al. (författare)
  • Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - : Elsevier. - 0370-1573 .- 1873-6270. ; 427:5-6, s. 257-454
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLID experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m(Z) and Gamma(Z), and its couplings to fermions, for example the p parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m(Z) = 91.1875 +/- 0.0021 GeV, Gamma(Z) = 2.4952 +/- 0.0023 GeV, rho(l) = 1.0050 +/- 0.0010, sin(2)theta(eff)(lept) = 0.23153 +/- 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 +/- 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. Of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its SM expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m(t) = 173(+10)(+13) GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m(W) = 80.363 +/- 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the SM. Using in addition the direct measurements of m(t) and m(W), the mass of the as yet unobserved SM Higgs boson is predicted with a relative uncertainty of about 50% and found to be less than 285 GeV at 95% confidence level. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Aamodt, K., et al. (författare)
  • The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3:S08002
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme includes collisions with lighter ions, lower energy running and dedicated proton-nucleus runs. ALICE will also take data with proton beams at the top LHC energy to collect reference data for the heavy-ion programme and to address several QCD topics for which ALICE is complementary to the other LHC detectors. The ALICE detector has been built by a collaboration including currently over 1000 physicists and engineers from 105 Institutes in 30 countries, Its overall dimensions are 16 x 16 x 26 m(3) with a total weight of approximately 10 000 t. The experiment consists of 18 different detector systems each with its own specific technology choice and design constraints, driven both by the physics requirements and the experimental conditions expected at LHC. The most stringent design constraint is to cope with the extreme particle multiplicity anticipated in central Pb-Pb collisions. The different subsystems were optimized to provide high-momentum resolution as well as excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a broad range in momentum, up to the highest multiplicities predicted for LHC. This will allow for comprehensive studies of hadrons, electrons, muons, and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei. Most detector systems are scheduled to be installed and ready for data taking by mid-2008 when the LHC is scheduled to start operation, with the exception of parts of the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS), Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and Electro Magnetic Calorimeter (EMCal). These detectors will be completed for the high-luminosity ion run expected in 2010. This paper describes in detail the detector components as installed for the first data taking in the summer of 2008.
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3.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Charged hadron multiplicity fluctuations in Au plus Au and Cu plus Cu collisions from s(NN)=22.5 to 200 GeV
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 78:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A comprehensive survey of event-by-event fluctuations of charged hadron multiplicity in relativistic heavy ions is presented. The survey covers Au+Au collisions at s(NN)=62.4 and 200 GeV, and Cu+Cu collisions at s(NN)=22.5,62.4, and 200 GeV. Fluctuations are measured as a function of collision centrality, transverse momentum range, and charge sign. After correcting for nondynamical fluctuations due to fluctuations in the collision geometry within a centrality bin, the remaining dynamical fluctuations expressed as the variance normalized by the mean tend to decrease with increasing centrality. The dynamical fluctuations are consistent with or below the expectation from a superposition of participant nucleon-nucleon collisions based upon p+p data, indicating that this dataset does not exhibit evidence of critical behavior in terms of the compressibility of the system. A comparison of the data with a model where hadrons are independently emitted from a number of hadron clusters suggests that the mean number of hadrons per cluster is small in heavy ion collisions.
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4.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Photon-hadron jet correlations in p plus p and Au plus Au collisions at s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 80:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the observation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider of suppression of back-to-back correlations in the direct photon+jet channel in Au+Au relative to p+p collisions. Two-particle correlations of direct photon triggers with associated hadrons are obtained by statistical subtraction of the decay photon-hadron (gamma-h) background. The initial momentum of the away-side parton is tightly constrained, because the parton-photon pair exactly balance in momentum at leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, making such correlations a powerful probe of the in-medium parton energy loss. The away-side nuclear suppression factor, I-AA, in central Au+Au collisions, is 0.32 +/- 0.12(stat)+/- 0.09(syst) for hadrons of 3 < p(T)(h)< 5 in coincidence with photons of 5 < p(T)(gamma)< 15 GeV/c. The suppression is comparable to that observed for high-p(T) single hadrons and dihadrons. The direct photon associated yields in p+p collisions scale approximately with the momentum balance, z(T)equivalent to p(T)(h)/p(T)(gamma), as expected for a measurement of the away-side parton fragmentation function. We compare to Au+Au collisions for which the momentum balance dependence of the nuclear modification should be sensitive to the path-length dependence of parton energy loss.
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5.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • System size and energy dependence of jet-induced hadron pair correlation shapes in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at root S-NN 200 and 62.4 GeV
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 98:23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present azimuthal angle correlations of intermediate transverse momentum (1-4 GeV/c) hadrons from dijets in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at root s(NN)=62.4 and 200 GeV. The away-side dijet induced azimuthal correlation is broadened, non-Gaussian, and peaked away from Delta phi=pi in central and semicentral collisions in all the systems. The broadening and peak location are found to depend upon the number of participants in the collision, but not on the collision energy or beam nuclei. These results are consistent with sound or shock wave models, but pose challenges to Cherenkov gluon radiation models.
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6.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cold nuclear matter effects on J/psi production as constrained by deuteron-gold measurements at root S-NN=200 GeV
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 77:2, s. 15-024912
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a new analysis of J/psi production yields in deuteron-gold collisions at root s(NN) =200 GeV using data taken from the PHENIX experiment in 2003 and previously published in S. S. Adler [Phys. Rev. Lett 96, 012304 (2006)]. The high statistics proton-proton J/psi data taken in 2005 are used to improve the baseline measurement and thus construct updated cold nuclear matter modification factors (R-dAu). A suppression of J/psi in cold nuclear matter is observed as one goes forward in rapidity (in the deuteron-going direction), corresponding to a region more sensitive to initial-state low-x gluons in the gold nucleus. The measured nuclear modification factors are compared to theoretical calculations of nuclear shadowing to which a J/psi (or precursor) breakup cross section is added. Breakup cross sections of sigma(breakup)=2.8(-1.4)(+1.7) (2.2(-1.5)(+1.6)) mb are obtained by fitting these calculations to the data using two different models of nuclear shadowing. These breakup cross-section values are consistent within large uncertainties with the 4.2 +/- 0.5 mb determined at lower collision energies. Projecting this range of cold nuclear matter effects to copper-copper and gold-gold collisions reveals that the current constraints are not sufficient to firmly quantify the additional hot nuclear matter effect.
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7.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Correlated production of p and (p)over-bar in Au+Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 649:5-6, s. 359-369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Correlations between p and (p) over bar at transverse momenta typical of enhanced baryon production in Au + Au collisions are reported. The PHENIX experiment has measured same and opposite sign baryon pairs in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Correlated production of p and p with the trigger particle from the range 2.5 < p(T) < 4.0 GeV/c and the associated particle with 1.8 < p(T) < 2.5 GeV/c is observed to be nearly independent of the centrality of the collisions. Same sign pairs show no correlation at any centrality. The conditional yield of mesons triggered by baryons (and anti-baryons) and mesons in the same p(T) range rises with increasing centrality, except for the most central collisions, where baryons show a significantly smaller number of associated mesons. These data are consistent with a picture in which hard scattered partons produce correlated p and (p) over bar in the p(T) region of the baryon excess. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Dihadron azimuthal correlations in Au+Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 78:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Azimuthal angle (Delta phi) correlations are presented for a broad range of transverse momentum (0.4 < p(T) < 10 GeV/c) and centrality (0-92%) selections for charged hadrons from dijets in Au+Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. With increasing p(T), the away-side Delta phi distribution evolves from a broad and relatively flat shape to a concave shape, then to a convex shape. Comparisons with p + p data suggest that the away-side distribution can be divided into a partially suppressed "head" region centered at Delta phi similar to pi, and an enhanced "shoulder" region centered at Delta phi similar to pi +/- 1.1. The p(T) spectrum for the associated hadrons in the head region softens toward central collisions. The spectral slope for the shoulder region is independent of centrality and trigger p(T). The properties of the near-side distributions are also modified relative to those in p + p collisions, reflected by the broadening of the jet shape in Delta phi and Delta eta, and an enhancement of the per-trigger yield. However, these modifications seem to be limited to p(T)less than or similar to 4 GeV/c, above which both the hadron pair shape and per-trigger yield become similar to p + p collisions. These observations suggest that both the away- and near-side distributions contain a jet fragmentation component which dominates for p(T) greater than or similar to 5 GeV/c and a medium-induced component which is important for p(T) less than or similar to 4 GeV/c. We also quantify the role of jets at intermediate and low p(T) through the yield of jet-induced pairs in comparison with binary scaled p + p pair yield. The yield of jet-induced pairs is suppressed at high pair proxy energy (sum of the p(T) magnitudes of the two hadrons) and is enhanced at low pair proxy energy. The former is consistent with jet quenching; the latter is consistent with the enhancement of soft hadron pairs due to transport of lost energy to lower p(T).
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9.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in Au+Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 98:17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured electrons with 0.3 < p(T) < 9 GeV/c at midrapidity (y < 0.35) from heavy-flavor (charm and bottom) decays in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The nuclear modification factor R-AA relative to p + p collisions shows a strong suppression in central Au + Au collisions, indicating substantial energy loss of heavy quarks in the medium produced at RHIC energies. A large azimuthal anisotropy v(2) with respect to the reaction plane is observed for 0.5 < p(T) < 5 GeV/c indicating substantial heavy-flavor elliptic flow. Both R-AA and v(2) show a p(T) dependence different from those of neutral pions. A comparison to transport models which simultaneously describe R-AA(p(T)) and v(2)(p(T)) suggests that the viscosity to entropy density ratio is close to the conjectured quantum lower bound, i.e., near a perfect fluid.
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10.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • J/psi production versus centrality, transverse momentum, and rapidity in Au+Au collisions at root S(NN) = 200 GeV
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 98:23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured J/psi production for rapidities -2.2 < y < 2.2 in Au+Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV. The J/psi invariant yield and nuclear modification factor R-AA as a function of centrality, transverse momentum, and rapidity are reported. A suppression of J/psi relative to binary collision scaling of proton-proton reaction yields is observed. Models which describe the lower energy J/psi data at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron invoking only J/psi destruction based on the local medium density predict a significantly larger suppression at RHIC and more suppression at midrapidity than at forward rapidity. Both trends are contradicted by our data.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 63
  • [1]234567Nästa

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