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Sökning: WFRF:(Kiss C) > (2020-2023)

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  • Leleu, A., et al. (författare)
  • Six transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in TOI-178
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 649
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their orbital configuration ensures that no significant scattering or collisional event has taken place since the earliest formation phase when the parent protoplanetary disc was still present. In this context, TOI-178 has been the subject of particular attention since the first TESS observations hinted at the possible presence of a near 2:3:3 resonant chain. Here we report the results of observations from CHEOPS, ESPRESSO, NGTS, and SPECULOOS with the aim of deciphering the peculiar orbital architecture of the system. We show that TOI-178 harbours at least six planets in the super-Earth to mini-Neptune regimes, with radii ranging from 1.152 to 2.87 Earth radii and periods of 1.91, 3.24, 6.56, 9.96, 15.23, and 20.71 days. All planets but the innermost one form a 2:4:6:9:12 chain of Laplace resonances, and the planetary densities show important variations from planet to planet, jumping from 1.02 to 0.177 times the Earth's density between planets c and d. Using Bayesian interior structure retrieval models, we show that the amount of gas in the planets does not vary in a monotonous way, contrary to what one would expect from simple formation and evolution models and unlike other known systems in a chain of Laplace resonances. The brightness of TOI-178 (H = 8.76 mag, J = 9.37 mag, V = 11.95 mag) allows for a precise characterisation of its orbital architecture as well as of the physical nature of the six presently known transiting planets it harbours. The peculiar orbital configuration and the diversity in average density among the planets in the system will enable the study of interior planetary structures and atmospheric evolution, providing important clues on the formation of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes. -0.070 -0.13 -0.23 -0.061 +0.073 +0.14 +0.28 +0.055
  • Osborn, H. P., et al. (författare)
  • Two warm Neptunes transiting HIP 9618 revealed by TESS and Cheops
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 523:2, s. 3069-3089
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • HIP 9618 (HD 12572, TOI-1471, TIC 306263608) is a bright (G = 9.0 mag) solar analogue. TESS photometry revealed the star to have two candidate planets with radii of 3.9 ± 0.044 R (HIP 9618 b) and 3.343 ± 0.039 R (HIP 9618 c). While the 20.77291 d period of HIP 9618 b was measured unambiguously, HIP 9618 c showed only two transits separated by a 680-d gap in the time series, leaving many possibilities for the period. To solve this issue, CHEOPS performed targeted photometry of period aliases to attempt to recover the true period of planet c, and successfully determined the true period to be 52.56349 d. High-resolution spectroscopy with HARPS-N, SOPHIE, and CAFE revealed a mass of 10.0 ± 3.1M for HIP 9618 b, which, according to our interior structure models, corresponds to a 6.8 ± 1.4 per cent gas fraction. HIP 9618 c appears to have a lower mass than HIP 9618 b, with a 3-sigma upper limit of <18M. Follow-up and archival RV measurements also reveal a clear long-term trend which, when combined with imaging and astrometric information, reveal a low-mass companion (0.08+−000512M☉) orbiting at 26.0+−111900 au. This detection makes HIP 9618 one of only five bright (K < 8 mag) transiting multiplanet systems known to host a planet with P > 50 d, opening the door for the atmospheric characterization of warm (Teq < 750 K) sub-Neptunes.
  • Barros, S. C.C., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of the tidal deformation of WASP-103b at 3 σ with CHEOPS
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Ultra-short period planets undergo strong tidal interactions with their host star which lead to planet deformation and orbital tidal decay. Aims. WASP-103b is the exoplanet with the highest expected deformation signature in its transit light curve and one of the shortest expected spiral-in times. Measuring the tidal deformation of the planet would allow us to estimate the second degree fluid Love number and gain insight into the planet's internal structure. Moreover, measuring the tidal decay timescale would allow us to estimate the stellar tidal quality factor, which is key to constraining stellar physics. Methods. We obtained 12 transit light curves of WASP-103b with the CHaracterising ExOplanet Satellite (CHEOPS) to estimate the tidal deformation and tidal decay of this extreme system. We modelled the high-precision CHEOPS transit light curves together with systematic instrumental noise using multi-dimensional Gaussian process regression informed by a set of instrumental parameters. To model the tidal deformation, we used a parametrisation model which allowed us to determine the second degree fluid Love number of the planet. We combined our light curves with previously observed transits of WASP-103b with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Spitzer to increase the signal-to-noise of the light curve and better distinguish the minute signal expected from the planetary deformation. Results. We estimate the radial Love number of WASP-103b to be hf = 1.59-0.53+0.45. This is the first time that the tidal deformation is directly detected (at 3 σ) from the transit light curve of an exoplanet. Combining the transit times derived from CHEOPS, HST, and Spitzer light curves with the other transit times available in the literature, we find no significant orbital period variation for WASP-103b. However, the data show a hint of an orbital period increase instead of a decrease, as is expected for tidal decay. This could be either due to a visual companion star if this star is bound, the Applegate effect, or a statistical artefact. Conclusions. The estimated Love number of WASP-103b is similar to Jupiter's. This will allow us to constrain the internal structure and composition of WASP-103b, which could provide clues on the inflation of hot Jupiters. Future observations with James Webb Space Telescope can better constrain the radial Love number of WASP-103b due to their high signal-to-noise and the smaller signature of limb darkening in the infrared. A longer time baseline is needed to constrain the tidal decay in this system.
  • Benz, W., et al. (författare)
  • The CHEOPS mission
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Experimental Astronomy. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 51:1, s. 109-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) was selected on October 19, 2012, as the first small mission (S-mission) in the ESA Science Programme and successfully launched on December 18, 2019, as a secondary passenger on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. CHEOPS is a partnership between ESA and Switzerland with important contributions by ten additional ESA Member States. CHEOPS is the first mission dedicated to search for transits of exoplanets using ultrahigh precision photometry on bright stars already known to host planets. As a follow-up mission, CHEOPS is mainly dedicated to improving, whenever possible, existing radii measurements or provide first accurate measurements for a subset of those planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based spectroscopic surveys. The expected photometric precision will also allow CHEOPS to go beyond measuring only transits and to follow phase curves or to search for exo-moons, for example. Finally, by unveiling transiting exoplanets with high potential for in-depth characterisation, CHEOPS will also provide prime targets for future instruments suited to the spectroscopic characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres. To reach its science objectives, requirements on the photometric precision and stability have been derived for stars with magnitudes ranging from 6 to 12 in the V band. In particular, CHEOPS shall be able to detect Earth-size planets transiting G5 dwarf stars (stellar radius of 0.9R⊙) in the magnitude range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 by achieving a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time. In the case of K-type stars (stellar radius of 0.7R⊙) of magnitude in the range 9 ≤ V ≤ 12, CHEOPS shall be able to detect transiting Neptune-size planets achieving a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time. This precision has to be maintained over continuous periods of observation for up to 48 hours. This precision and stability will be achieved by using a single, frame-transfer, back-illuminated CCD detector at the focal plane assembly of a 33.5 cm diameter, on-axis Ritchey-Chrétien telescope. The nearly 275 kg spacecraft is nadir-locked, with a pointing accuracy of about 1 arcsec rms, and will allow for at least 1 Gbit/day downlink. The sun-synchronous dusk-dawn orbit at 700 km altitude enables having the Sun permanently on the backside of the spacecraft thus minimising Earth stray light. A mission duration of 3.5 years in orbit is foreseen to enable the execution of the science programme. During this period, 20% of the observing time is available to the wider community through yearly ESA call for proposals, as well as through discretionary time approved by ESA’s Director of Science. At the time of this writing, CHEOPS commissioning has been completed and CHEOPS has been shown to fulfill all its requirements. The mission has now started the execution of its science programme.
  • Bonfanti, A., et al. (författare)
  • CHEOPS observations of the HD 108236 planetary system: A fifth planet, improved ephemerides, and planetary radii
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The detection of a super-Earth and three mini-Neptunes transiting the bright (V = 9.2 mag) star HD 108236 (also known as TOI-1233) was recently reported on the basis of TESS and ground-based light curves. Aims. We perform a first characterisation of the HD 108236 planetary system through high-precision CHEOPS photometry and improve the transit ephemerides and system parameters. Methods. We characterise the host star through spectroscopic analysis and derive the radius with the infrared flux method. We constrain the stellar mass and age by combining the results obtained from two sets of stellar evolutionary tracks. We analyse the available TESS light curves and one CHEOPS transit light curve for each known planet in the system. Results. We find that HD 108236 is a Sun-like star with R? = 0.877 ± 0.008 R? , M? = 0.869-0.048+0.050 M? , and an age of 6.7-5.1+4.0 Gyr. We report the serendipitous detection of an additional planet, HD 108236 f, in one of the CHEOPS light curves. For this planet, the combined analysis of the TESS and CHEOPS light curves leads to a tentative orbital period of about 29.5 days. From the light curve analysis, we obtain radii of 1.615 ± 0.051, 2.071 ± 0.052, 2.539-0.065+0.062, 3.083 ± 0.052, and 2.017-0.057+0.052 R? for planets HD 108236 b to HD 108236 f, respectively. These values are in agreement with previous TESS-based estimates, but with an improved precision of about a factor of two. We perform a stability analysis of the system, concluding that the planetary orbits most likely have eccentricities smaller than 0.1. We also employ a planetary atmospheric evolution framework to constrain the masses of the five planets, concluding that HD 108236 b and HD 108236 c should have an Earth-like density, while the outer planets should host a low mean molecular weight envelope. Conclusions. The detection of the fifth planet makes HD 108236 the third system brighter than V = 10 mag to host more than four transiting planets. The longer time span enables us to significantly improve the orbital ephemerides such that the uncertainty on the transit times will be of the order of minutes for the years to come. A comparison of the results obtained from the TESS and CHEOPS light curves indicates that for a V - 9 mag solar-like star and a transit signal of -500 ppm, one CHEOPS transit light curve ensures the same level of photometric precision as eight TESS transits combined, although this conclusion depends on the length and position of the gaps in the light curve.
  • Bonfanti, A., et al. (författare)
  • TOI-1055 b: Neptunian planet characterised with HARPS, TESS, and CHEOPS
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 671
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. TOI-1055 is a Sun-like star known to host a transiting Neptune-sized planet on a 17.5-day orbit (TOI-1055 b). Radial velocity (RV) analyses carried out by two independent groups using nearly the same set of HARPS spectra have provided measurements of planetary masses that differ by ∼2σ. Aims. Our aim in this work is to solve the inconsistency in the published planetary masses by significantly extending the set of HARPS RV measurements and employing a new analysis tool that is able to account and correct for stellar activity. Our further aim was to improve the precision on measurements of the planetary radius by observing two transits of the planet with the CHEOPS space telescope. Methods. We fit a skew normal function to each cross correlation function extracted from the HARPS spectra to obtain RV measurements and hyperparameters to be used for the detrending. We evaluated the correlation changes of the hyperparameters along the RV time series using the breakpoint technique. We performed a joint photometric and RV analysis using a Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme to simultaneously detrend the light curves and the RV time series. Results. We firmly detected the Keplerian signal of TOI-1055 b, deriving a planetary mass of Mb = 20.4-2.5+2.6 MO (∼12%). This value is in agreement with one of the two estimates in the literature, but it is significantly more precise. Thanks to the TESS transit light curves combined with exquisite CHEOPS photometry, we also derived a planetary radius of Rb = 3.490-0.064+0.070 RO (∼1.9%). Our mass and radius measurements imply a mean density of ρb = 2.65-0.35+0.37 g cm-3 (∼14%). We further inferred the planetary structure and found that TOI-1055 b is very likely to host a substantial gas envelope with a mass of 0.41-0.20+0.34 MO and a thickness of 1.05-0.29+0.30 RO. Conclusions. Our RV extraction combined with the breakpoint technique has played a key role in the optimal removal of stellar activity from the HARPS time series, enabling us to solve the tension in the planetary mass values published so far for TOI-1055 b.
  • Krenn, A., et al. (författare)
  • The geometric albedo of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b measured with CHEOPS
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Measurements of the occultation of an exoplanet at visible wavelengths allow us to determine the reflective properties of a planetary atmosphere. The observed occultation depth can be translated into a geometric albedo. This in turn aids in characterising the structure and composition of an atmosphere by providing additional information on the wavelength-dependent reflective qualities of the aerosols in the atmosphere. Aims. Our aim is to provide a precise measurement of the geometric albedo of the gas giant HD 189733b by measuring the occultation depth in the broad optical bandpass of CHEOPS (350-1100 nm). Methods. We analysed 13 observations of the occultation of HD 189733b performed by CHEOPS utilising the Python package PyCHEOPS. The resulting occultation depth is then used to infer the geometric albedo accounting for the contribution of thermal emission from the planet. We also aid the analysis by refining the transit parameters combining observations made by the TESS and CHEOPS space telescopes. Results. We report the detection of an 24.7 ± 4.5 ppm occultation in the CHEOPS observations. This occultation depth corresponds to a geometric albedo of 0.076 ± 0.016. Our measurement is consistent with models assuming the atmosphere of the planet to be cloud-free at the scattering level and absorption in the CHEOPS band to be dominated by the resonant Na doublet. Taking into account previous optical-light occultation observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, both measurements combined are consistent with a super-stellar Na elemental abundance in the dayside atmosphere of HD 189733b. We further constrain the planetary Bond albedo to between 0.013 and 0.42 at 3σconfidence. Conclusions. We find that the reflective properties of the HD 189733b dayside atmosphere are consistent with a cloud-free atmosphere having a super-stellar metal content. When compared to an analogous CHEOPS measurement for HD 209458b, our data hint at a slightly lower geometric albedo for HD 189733b (0.076 ± 0.016) than for HD 209458b (0.096 ± 0.016), or a higher atmospheric Na content in the same modelling framework. While our constraint on the Bond albedo is consistent with previously published values, we note that the higher-end values of ∼0.4, as derived previously from infrared phase curves, would also require peculiarly high reflectance in the infrared, which again would make it more difficult to disentangle reflected and emitted light in the total observed flux, and therefore to correctly account for reflected light in the interpretation of those phase curves. Lower reported values for the Bond albedos are less affected by this ambiguity.
  • Lacedelli, G., et al. (författare)
  • Investigating the architecture and internal structure of the TOI-561 system planets with CHEOPS, HARPS-N, and TESS
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 511:3, s. 4551-4571
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a precise characterization of the TOI-561 planetary system obtained by combining previously published data with TESS and CHEOPS photometry, and a new set of 62 HARPS-N radial velocities (RVs). Our joint analysis confirms the presence of four transiting planets, namely TOI-561 b (P = 0.45 d, R = 1.42 R-circle plus, M = 2.0 M-circle plus), c (P = 10.78 d, R = 2.91 R-circle plus, M = 5.4 M-circle plus), d (P = 25.7 d, R = 2.82 R-circle plus, M = 13.2 M-circle plus), and e (P = 77 d, R = 2.55 R-circle plus, M = 12.6 R-circle plus). Moreover, we identify an additional, long-period signal (>450 d) in the RVs, which could be due to either an external planetary companion or to stellar magnetic activity. The precise masses and radii obtained for the four planets allowed us to conduct interior structure and atmospheric escape modelling. TOI-561 b is confirmed to be the lowest density (rho(b) = 3.8 +/- 0.5 g cm(-3)) ultra-short period (USP) planet known to date, and the low metallicity of the host star makes it consistent with the general bulk density-stellar metallicity trend. According to our interior structure modelling, planet b has basically no gas envelope, and it could host a certain amount of water. In contrast, TOI-561 c, d, and e likely retained an H/He envelope, in addition to a possibly large water layer. The inferred planetary compositions suggest different atmospheric evolutionary paths, with planets b and c having experienced significant gas loss, and planets d and e showing an atmospheric content consistent with the original one. The uniqueness of the USP planet, the presence of the long-period planet TOI-561 e, and the complex architecture make this system an appealing target for follow-up studies.
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