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Sökning: WFRF:(Klein G) > (2020-2023) > (2022)

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  • Chumak, A. V., et al. (författare)
  • Advances in Magnetics Roadmap on Spin-Wave Computing
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. - 0018-9464. ; 58:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Magnonics addresses the physical properties of spin waves and utilizes them for data processing. Scalability down to atomic dimensions, operation in the GHz-to-THz frequency range, utilization of nonlinear and nonreciprocal phenomena, and compatibility with CMOS are just a few of many advantages offered by magnons. Although magnonics is still primarily positioned in the academic domain, the scientific and technological challenges of the field are being extensively investigated, and many proof-of-concept prototypes have already been realized in laboratories. This roadmap is a product of the collective work of many authors that covers versatile spin-wave computing approaches, conceptual building blocks, and underlying physical phenomena. In particular, the roadmap discusses the computation operations with Boolean digital data, unconventional approaches like neuromorphic computing, and the progress towards magnon-based quantum computing. The article is organized as a collection of sub-sections grouped into seven large thematic sections. Each sub-section is prepared by one or a group of authors and concludes with a brief description of current challenges and the outlook of further development for each research direction. Author
  • Dima, Danai, et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumes across the lifespan : Data from 18,605 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : Wiley. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 452-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3-90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.
  • Frangou, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness across the lifespan : Data from 17,075 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 431-451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.
  • Gehlen, J., et al. (författare)
  • First genome-wide association study of esophageal atresia identifies three genetic risk loci at CTNNA3, FOXF1/FOXC2/FOXL1, and HNF1B
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics and Genomics Advances. - : Elsevier BV. - 2666-2477. ; 3:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is the most common congenital malformation of the upper digestive tract. This study represents the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify risk loci for EA/TEF. We used a European case-control sample comprising 764 EA/TEF patients and 5,778 controls and observed genome-wide significant associations at three loci. On chromosome 10q21 within the gene CTNNA3 (p = 2.11 × 10−8; odds ratio [OR] = 3.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.10–5.00), on chromosome 16q24 next to the FOX gene cluster (p = 2.25 × 10−10; OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.38–1.55) and on chromosome 17q12 next to the gene HNF1B (p = 3.35 × 10−16; OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.64–1.87). We next carried out an esophageal/tracheal transcriptome profiling in rat embryos at four selected embryonic time points. Based on these data and on already published data, the implicated genes at all three GWAS loci are promising candidates for EA/TEF development. We also analyzed the genetic EA/TEF architecture beyond the single marker level, which revealed an estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability of around 37% ± 14% standard deviation. In addition, we examined the polygenicity of EA/TEF and found that EA/TEF is less polygenic than other complex genetic diseases. In conclusion, the results of our study contribute to a better understanding on the underlying genetic architecture of ET/TEF with the identification of three risk loci and candidate genes. © 2022 The Authors
  • Ozgen, H, et al. (författare)
  • [International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder]
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie. - : Hogrefe Publishing Group. - 1422-4917 .- 1664-2880. ; 50:1, s. 54-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Zusammenfassung. Hintergrund: Eine Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) im Kindesalter stellt einen Risikofaktor für Substanzmissbrauch und Störungen durch Substanzgebrauch (Substance Use Disorder, SUD) in der Pubertät und dem (frühen) Erwachsenenalter dar. ADHS und SUD treten auch häufig bei therapiesuchenden Jugendlichen auf, was die Diagnosestellung und Therapie erschwert sowie mit schlechten Behandlungsergebnissen verbunden ist. Forschungsergebnisse über die Wirkung der Behandlung von ADHS im Kindesalter auf die Prävention von SUD im Jugendalter sind nicht eindeutig und Studien über die Diagnose und Behandlung von Jugendlichen mit ADHS und SUD sind selten. Daher reicht die verfügbare Evidenz allgemein nicht aus, um starke Behandlungsempfehlungen zu rechtfertigen. Fragestellung: Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, eine Konsenserklärung auf der Grundlage von wissenschaftlichen Daten und klinischen Erfahrungen zu erhalten. Methodik: Es wurde eine modifizierte Delphi-Studie durchgeführt, um basierend auf der Kombination von wissenschaftlichen Daten und klinischer Erfahrung mit einer multidisziplinären Gruppe von 55 Expert_innen aus 17 Ländern einen Konsens zu erzielen. Die Expert_innen wurden gebeten, eine Reihe von Aussagen über die Wirkung der Behandlung von ADHS im Kindesalter auf die SUD bei Jugendlichen sowie über das Screening, die Diagnostik und die Behandlung von Jugendlichen mit komorbidem ADHS und SUD zu bewerten. Ergebnisse: Nach drei iterativen Bewertungsrunden und der Anpassung von 37 Aussagen wurde ein Konsens über 36 dieser Aussagen erzielt, die sechs Bereiche repräsentieren: allgemein ( n = 4), Risiko der Entwicklung einer SUD ( n = 3), Screening und Diagnostik ( n = 7), psychosoziale Behandlung ( n = 5), pharmakologische Behandlung ( n = 11) und komplementäre Behandlungen ( n = 7). Der Einsatz von Routinescreenings auf ADHS wird bei adoleszenten Patient_innen in einer Suchtbehandlung ebenso wie Routinescreenings auf SUD bei jugendlichen Patient_innen mit ADHS in allgemeinpsychiatrischen Therapiesettings empfohlen. Langwirksame Stimulanzien werden als Behandlung der ersten Wahl von ADHS bei Jugendlichen mit gleichzeitiger ADHS und SUD empfohlen. Die Pharmakotherapie sollte vorzugsweise in psychosoziale Behandlung eingebettet werden. Die einzige nichtkonsentierte Aussage betraf die Notwendigkeit von Abstinenz vor Beginn einer pharmakologischen Behandlung bei Jugendlichen mit ADHS und gleichzeitigem SUD. Im Gegensatz zur Mehrheit verlangten einige Expert_innen eine vollständige Abstinenz vor Beginn einer pharmakologischen Behandlung, einige waren gegen die Verwendung von Stimulanzien bei der Behandlung dieser Patient_innen (unabhängig von Abstinenz), während einige sich gegen die alternative Anwendung von Bupropion aussprachen. Schlussfolgerungen: Diese internationale Konsenserklärung kann von Kliniker_innen und Patient_innen zusammen in einem gemeinsamen Entscheidungsprozess genutzt werden, um die besten Interventionen auszuwählen und die bestmöglichen Ergebnisse bei adoleszenten Patient_innen mit gleichzeitiger ADHS und SUD zu erzielen.
  • Wierenga, Lara M., et al. (författare)
  • Greater male than female variability in regional brain structure across the lifespan
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 470-499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international data spanning nine decades of life. Subcortical volumes, cortical surface area and cortical thickness were assessed in MRI data of 16,683 healthy individuals 1-90 years old (47% females). We observed significant patterns of greater male than female between-subject variance for all subcortical volumetric measures, all cortical surface area measures, and 60% of cortical thickness measures. This pattern was stable across the lifespan for 50% of the subcortical structures, 70% of the regional area measures, and nearly all regions for thickness. Our findings that these sex differences are present in childhood implicate early life genetic or gene-environment interaction mechanisms. The findings highlight the importance of individual differences within the sexes, that may underpin sex-specific vulnerability to disorders.
  • Abreu, A., et al. (författare)
  • Priorities for ocean microbiome research
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Nature Microbiology. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2058-5276. ; 7:7, s. 937-947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studying the ocean microbiome can inform international policies related to ocean governance, tackling climate change, ocean acidification and pollution, and can help promote achievement of multiple Sustainable Development Goals. Microbial communities have essential roles in ocean ecology and planetary health. Microbes participate in nutrient cycles, remove huge quantities of carbon dioxide from the air and support ocean food webs. The taxonomic and functional diversity of the global ocean microbiome has been revealed by technological advances in sampling, DNA sequencing and bioinformatics. A better understanding of the ocean microbiome could underpin strategies to address environmental and societal challenges, including achievement of multiple Sustainable Development Goals way beyond SDG 14 'life below water'. We propose a set of priorities for understanding and protecting the ocean microbiome, which include delineating interactions between microbiota, sustainably applying resources from oceanic microorganisms and creating policy- and funder-friendly ocean education resources, and discuss how to achieve these ambitious goals.
  • Barragan, O., et al. (författare)
  • The young HD 73583 (TOI-560) planetary system: two 10-M-circle plus mini-Neptunes transiting a 500-Myr-old, bright, and active K dwarf
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 514:2, s. 1606-1627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the discovery and characterization of two transiting planets observed by TESS in the light curves of the young and bright (V = 9.67) star HD73583 (TOI-560). We perform an intensive spectroscopic and photometric space- and ground-based follow-up in order to confirm and characterize the system. We found that HD73583 is a young (similar to 500 Myr) active star with a rotational period of 12.08 +/- 0.11 d, and a mass and radius of 0.73 +/- 0.02 M-circle dot and 0.65 +/- 0.02 R-circle dot, respectively. HD 73583 b (P-b = 6.3980420(-0.0000062)(+0.0000067 )d) has a mass and radius of 10.2(-3.1)(+3.4) M-circle plus and 2.79 +/- 0.10 R-circle plus, respectively, which gives a density of 2.58(-0.81)(+0.95) g cm(-3). HD 73583 c (P-c = 18.87974(-0.00074)(+0.00086) d) has a mass and radius of 9.7(-1.7)(+1.8) M-circle plus and 2.39(-0.09)(+0.10) R-circle plus, respectively, which translates to a density of 3.88(-0.80)(+0.91) g cm(-3). Both planets are consistent with worlds made of a solid core surrounded by a volatile envelope. Because of their youth and host star brightness, they both are excellent candidates to perform transmission spectroscopy studies. We expect ongoing atmospheric mass-loss for both planets caused by stellar irradiation. We estimate that the detection of evaporating signatures on H and He would be challenging, but doable with present and future instruments.
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