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Sökning: WFRF:(Klinger M) > (2010-2014) > (2011)

  • Resultat 1-5 av 5
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  • Hajkova, V., et al. (författare)
  • X-ray laser-induced ablation of lead compounds
  • 2011
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recent commissioning of a X-ray free-electron laser triggered an extensive research in the area of X-ray ablation of high-Z, high-density materials. Such compounds should be used to shorten an effective attenuation length for obtaining clean ablation imprints required for the focused beam analysis. Compounds of lead (Z=82) represent the materials of first choice. In this contribution, single-shot ablation thresholds are reported for PbWO(4) and PbI(2) exposed to ultra-short pulses of extreme ultraviolet radiation and X-rays at FLASH and LCLS facilities, respectively. Interestingly, the threshold reaches only 0.11 J/cm(2) at 1.55 nm in lead tungstate although a value of 0.4 J/cm(2) is expected according to the wavelength dependence of an attenuation length and the threshold value determined in the XUV spectral region, i.e., 79 mJ/cm(2) at a FEL wavelength of 13.5 nm. Mechanisms of ablation processes are discussed to explain this discrepancy. Lead iodide shows at 1.55 nm significantly lower ablation threshold than tungstate although an attenuation length of the radiation is in both materials quite the same. Lower thermal and radiation stability of PbI(2) is responsible for this finding.
  • Iwan, Bianca S, et al. (författare)
  • TOF-OFF : A method for determining focal positions in tightly focused free-electron laser experiments by measurement of ejected ions
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: High Energy Density Physics. - 1574-1818. ; 7:4, s. 336-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulse intensities greater than 1017 Watt/cm2 were reached at the FLASH soft X-ray laser in Hamburg, Germany, using an off-axis parabolic mirror to focus 15 fs pulses of 5–70 μJ energy at 13.5 nm wavelength to a micron-sized spot. We describe the interaction of such pulses with niobium and vanadium targets and their deuterides. The beam produced craters in the solid targets, and we measured the kinetic energy of ions ejected from these craters. Ions with several keV kinetic energy were observed from craters approaching 5 μm in depth when the sample was at best focus. We also observed the onset of saturation in both ion acceleration and ablation with pulse intensities exceeding 1016 W/cm2, when the highest detected ion energies and the crater depths tend to saturate with increasing intensity. A general difficulty in working with micron and sub-micron focusing optics is finding the exact focus of the beam inside a vacuum chamber. Here we propose a direct method to measure the focal position to a resolution better than the Rayleigh length. The method is based on the correlation between the energies of ejected ions and the physical dimensions of the craters. We find that the focus position can be quickly determined from the ion time-of-flight (TOF) data as the target is scanned through the expected focal region. The method does not require external access to the sample or venting the vacuum chamber. Profile fitting employed to analyze the TOF data can extend resolution beyond the actual scanning step size.
  • Andreasson, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Saturated ablation in metal hydrides and acceleration of protons and deuterons to keV energies with a soft-x-ray laser
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. - 1539-3755 .- 1550-2376. ; 83:1, s. 016403-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies of materials under extreme conditions have relevance to a broad area of research, including planetary physics, fusion research, materials science, and structural biology with x-ray lasers. We study such extreme conditions and experimentally probe the interaction between ultrashort soft x-ray pulses and solid targets (metals and their deuterides) at the FLASH free-electron laser where power densities exceeding 1017 W/cm2 were reached. Time-of-flight ion spectrometry and crater analysis were used to characterize the interaction. The results show the onset of saturation in the ablation process at power densities above 1016 W/cm2. This effect can be linked to a transiently induced x-ray transparency in the solid by the femtosecond x-ray pulse at high power densities. The measured kinetic energies of protons and deuterons ejected from the surface reach several keV and concur with predictions from plasma-expansion models. Simulations of the interactions were performed with a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium code with radiation transfer. These calculations return critical depths similar to the observed crater depths and capture the transient surface transparency at higher power densities.
  • Klinger, Stine C, et al. (författare)
  • SorLA regulates the activity of lipoprotein lipase by intracellular trafficking
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cell Science. - 0021-9533 .- 1477-9137. ; 124, s. 1095-1105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many different tissues and cell types exhibit regulated secretion of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). However, the sorting of LPL in the trans Golgi network has not, hitherto, been understood in detail. Here, we characterize the role of SorLA (officially known as SorLA-1 or sortilin-related receptor) in the intracellular trafficking of LPL. We found that LPL bound to SorLA under neutral and acidic conditions, and in cells this binding mainly occurred in vesicular structures. SorLA expression changed the subcellular distribution of LPL so it became more concentrated in endosomes. From the endosomes, LPL was further routed to the lysosomes, which resulted in a degradation of newly synthesized LPL. Consequently, an 80% reduction of LPL activity was observed in cells that expressed SorLA. By analogy, SorLA regulated the vesicle-like localization of LPL in primary neuronal cells. Thus, LPL binds to SorLA in the biosynthetic pathway and is subsequently transported to endosomes. As a result of this SorLA mediated-transport, newly synthesized LPL can be routed into specialized vesicles and eventually sent to degradation, and its activity thereby regulated.
  • Magnusson, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • SATB2 in Combination With Cytokeratin 20 Identifies Over 95% of all Colorectal Carcinomas
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Surgical Pathology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0147-5185 .- 1532-0979. ; 35:7, s. 937-948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a nuclear matrix-associated transcription factor and epigenetic regulator, was identified as a tissue type-specific protein when screening protein expression patterns in human normal and cancer tissues using an antibody-based proteomics approach. In this respect, the SATB2 protein shows a selective pattern of expression and, within cells of epithelial lineages, SATB2 expression is restricted to glandular cells lining the lower gastrointestinal tract. The expression of SATB2 protein is primarily preserved in cancer cells of colorectal origin, indicating that SATB2 could function as a clinically useful diagnostic marker to distinguish colorectal cancer (CRC) from other types of cancer. The aim of this study was to further explore and validate the specific expression pattern of SATB2 as a clinical biomarker and to compare SATB2 with the well-known cytokeratin 20 (CK20). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the extent of SATB2 expression in tissue microarrays with tumors from 9 independent cohorts of patients with primary and metastatic CRCs (n = 1882). Our results show that SATB2 is a sensitive and highly specific marker for CRC with distinct positivity in 85% of all CRCs, and that SATB2 and/or CK20 was positive in 97% of CRCs. In conclusion, the specific expression of SATB2 in a large majority of CRCs suggests that SATB2 can be used as an important complementary tool for the differential diagnosis of carcinoma of unknown primary origin.
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  • Resultat 1-5 av 5

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