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Sökning: WFRF:(Langhammer Arnulf) > (2020-2023)

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  • Allinson, James, et al. (författare)
  • Collating data from major European population studies - The CADSET (Chronic airway disease early stratification) clinical research collaboration
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:suppl 64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: European population cohorts continue to expand our understanding of chronic airways disease and inter-study collaboration may help address the inevitable limitations of study size, duration, era and geography. Towards this aim, CADSET has collated data from ten major general population European cohorts: Asklepios; Copenhagen City Heart Study; Copenhagen General Population Study; ECRHS; HUNT; LEAD; Lifelines, OLIN, Rotterdam Study and WSAS. We included males and females aged 20 to 95 years with baseline demographic and spirometry data.Results: Data from 262,829 individuals (44% male) from multiple European countries provided good coverage across all adult ages (Fig.1A). Recruitment occurred in every year from 1976 through 2020. 23% were current-smokers and 42% were never-smokers, a pattern varying with advancing age (Fig.1B). The prevalence of airflow limitation varied according to whether lower limit of normal (LLN) or <0.70 thresholds were applied, increasing with age if the latter was used (Fig.1C).Interpretation: These results fit with previous reports, however the size, geographical reach and span of recruitment provided by this collaboration provides a unique opportunity to explore chronic airways disease development. Together, we are now pursuing research questions previously beyond the scope of individual cohort studies.
  • Allinson, James P, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in lung function in European adults born between 1884 and 1996 and implications for the diagnosis of lung disease: a cross-sectional analysis of ten population-based studies.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Respiratory medicine. - : Elsevier. - 2213-2619 .- 2213-2600. ; 10:1, s. 83-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the past century, socioeconomic and scientific advances have resulted in changes in the health and physique of European populations. Accompanying improvements in lung function, if unrecognised, could result in the misclassification of lung function measurements and misdiagnosis of lung diseases. We therefore investigated changes in population lung function with birth year across the past century, accounting for increasing population height, and examined how such changes might influence the interpretation of lung function measurements.In our analyses of cross-sectional data from ten European population-based studies, we included individuals aged 20-94 years who were born between 1884 and 1996, regardless of previous respiratory diagnoses or symptoms. FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), height, weight, and smoking behaviour were measured between 1965 and 2016. We used meta-regression to investigate how FEV1 and FVC (adjusting for age, study, height, sex, smoking status, smoking pack-years, and weight) and the FEV1/FVC ratio (adjusting for age, study, sex, and smoking status) changed with birth year. Using estimates from these models, we graphically explored how mean lung function values would be expected to progressively deviate from predicted values. To substantiate our findings, we used linear regression to investigate how the FEV1 and FVC values predicted by 32 reference equations published between 1961 and 2015 changed with estimated birth year.Across the ten included studies, we included 243 465 European participants (mean age 51·4 years, 95% CI 51·4-51·5) in our analysis, of whom 136 275 (56·0%) were female and 107 190 (44·0%) were male. After full adjustment, FEV1 increased by 4·8 mL/birth year (95% CI 2·6-7·0; p<0·0001) and FVC increased by 8·8 mL/birth year (5·7-12·0; p<0·0001). Birth year-related increases in the FEV1 and FVC values predicted by published reference equations corroborated these findings. This height-independent increase in FEV1 and FVC across the last century will have caused mean population values to progressively exceed previously predicted values. However, the population mean adjusted FEV1/FVC ratio decreased by 0·11 per 100 birth years (95% CI 0·09-0·14; p<0·0001).If current diagnostic criteria remain unchanged, the identified shifts in European values will allow the easier fulfilment of diagnostic criteria for lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but the systematic underestimation of lung disease severity.The European Respiratory Society, AstraZeneca, Chiesi Farmaceutici, GlaxoSmithKline, Menarini, and Sanofi-Genzyme.
  • Axelsson, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in diagnostic patterns of obstructive airway disease between areas and sex in Sweden and Finland : The Nordic EpiLung Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Asthma. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0277-0903 .- 1532-4303. ; 58:9, s. 1196-1207
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the current prevalence of physician-diagnosed obstructive airway diseases by respiratory symptoms and by sex in Sweden and Finland. Method: In 2016, a postal questionnaire was answered by 34,072 randomly selected adults in four study areas: Västra Götaland and Norrbotten in Sweden, and Seinäjoki-Vaasa and Helsinki in Finland. Results: The prevalence of asthma symptoms was higher in Norrbotten (13.2%), Seinäjoki-Vaasa (14.8%) and Helsinki (14.4%) than in Västra Götaland (10.7%), and physician-diagnosed asthma was highest in Norrbotten (13.0%) and least in Västra Götaland (10.1%). Chronic productive cough was most common in the Finnish areas (7.7-8.2 % versus 6.3-6.7 %) while the prevalence of physician-diagnosed chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varied between 1.7-2.7% in the four areas. Among individuals with respiratory symptoms, the prevalence of asthma was most common in Norrbotten, while a diagnosis of COPD or CB was most common in Västra Götaland and Seinäjoki-Vaasa. More women than men with respiratory symptoms reported a diagnosis of asthma in Sweden and Seinäjoki-Vaasa but there were no sex differences in Helsinki. In Sweden, more women than men with symptoms of cough or phlegm reported a diagnosis of CB or COPD, while in Finland the opposite was found. Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and corresponding diagnoses varied between and within the countries. The proportion reporting a diagnosis of obstructive airway disease among individuals with respiratory symptoms varied, indicating differences in diagnostic patterns both between areas and by sex.
  • Backman, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory symptoms as risk factors for mortality – the Nordic EpiLung Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:Suppl 64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Little is known on associations between respiratory symptoms and mortality.Aim: To study whether respiratory symptoms are risk factors for all-cause, respiratory, cardiovascular (CV), and cancer mortality in Sweden and Norway.Methods: In 1995-1997, population samples (20-69y) were surveyed about respiratory symptoms, and n=7,104 (85.3% of invited, median age 45y) and n=54,240 (70.1%, 44y) participated within the OLIN Studies in Northern Sweden and the HUNT Study in Norway. Mortality was studied until December 31st 2015. Hazard ratios (HR) for associations between respiratory symptoms and mortality were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, educational level, and smoking habits.Results: The cumulative 20-year mortality was 14.5% in OLIN and 12.6% in HUNT. Dyspnea (mMRC grade≥2) (HR 1.9, 95%CI 1.6-2.2 in OLIN and 1.6, 1.5-1.7 in HUNT), chronic productive cough (1.5, 1.3-1.8 and 1.5, 1.3-1.6), and wheeze (1.3, 1.1-1.5 and 1.3, 1.2-1.4) were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Women reported dyspnea and wheeze more frequently than men in both countries, but the association with mortality was similar in both sexes. Causes of death were studied in OLIN, where dyspnea associated with increased risk of respiratory (3.6, 2.1-6.1), CV (2.1, 1.6-2.7), and cancer (1.3, 1.0-1.8) mortality. Chronic productive cough was associated with increased risk of respiratory (2.4, 1.3-4.3) and cancer (1.6, 1.2-2.2) mortality, while wheeze was associated with increased risk of respiratory (3.5, 2.1-5.7) and CV (1.3, 1.0-1.6) mortality.Conclusions: Common respiratory symptoms were similarly associated with increased risk of mortality in adults in Sweden and Norway.
  • Ferreira, Manuel A R, et al. (författare)
  • Age-of-onset information helps identify 76 genetic variants associated with allergic disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - : Publlic Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 16:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Risk factors that contribute to inter-individual differences in the age-of-onset of allergic diseases are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify genetic risk variants associated with the age at which symptoms of allergic disease first develop, considering information from asthma, hay fever and eczema. Self-reported age-of-onset information was available for 117,130 genotyped individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank study. For each individual, we identified the earliest age at which asthma, hay fever and/or eczema was first diagnosed and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this combined age-of-onset phenotype. We identified 50 variants with a significant independent association (P<3x10-8) with age-of-onset. Forty-five variants had comparable effects on the onset of the three individual diseases and 38 were also associated with allergic disease case-control status in an independent study (n = 222,484). We observed a strong negative genetic correlation between age-of-onset and case-control status of allergic disease (rg = -0.63, P = 4.5x10-61), indicating that cases with early disease onset have a greater burden of allergy risk alleles than those with late disease onset. Subsequently, a multivariate GWAS of age-of-onset and case-control status identified a further 26 associations that were missed by the univariate analyses of age-of-onset or case-control status only. Collectively, of the 76 variants identified, 18 represent novel associations for allergic disease. We identified 81 likely target genes of the 76 associated variants based on information from expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and non-synonymous variants, of which we highlight ADAM15, FOSL2, TRIM8, BMPR2, CD200R1, PRKCQ, NOD2, SMAD4, ABCA7 and UBE2L3. Our results support the notion that early and late onset allergic disease have partly distinct genetic architectures, potentially explaining known differences in pathophysiology between individuals.
  • Grahnemo, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of three bacterial species associated with increased appendicular lean mass: the HUNT study.
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 14:1, s. 2250-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Appendicular lean mass (ALM) associates with mobility and bone mineral density (BMD). While associations between gut microbiota composition and ALM have been reported, previous studies rely on relatively small sample sizes. Here, we determine the associations between prevalent gut microbes and ALM in large discovery and replication cohorts with information on relevant confounders within the population-based Norwegian HUNT cohort (n = 5196, including women and men). We show that the presence of three bacterial species - Coprococcus comes, Dorea longicatena, and Eubacterium ventriosum - are reproducibly associated with higher ALM. When combined into an anabolic species count, participants with all three anabolic species have 0.80 kg higher ALM than those without any. In an exploratory analysis, the anabolic species count is positively associated with femoral neck and total hip BMD. We conclude that the anabolic species count may be used as a marker of ALM and BMD. The therapeutic potential of these anabolic species to prevent sarcopenia and osteoporosis needs to be determined.
  • Guida, Florence, et al. (författare)
  • The blood metabolome of incident kidney cancer: A case-control study nested within the MetKid consortium
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - : Public Library of Science (PLOS). - 1549-1277 .- 1549-1676. ; 18:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI).Methods and findings: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case–control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Cases were diagnosed on average 8 years after blood collection. We found 25 metabolites robustly associated with kidney cancer risk. In particular, 14 glycerophospholipids (GPLs) were inversely associated with risk, including 8 phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and 2 plasmalogens. The PC with the strongest association was PC ae C34:3 with an odds ratio (OR) for 1 standard deviation (SD) increment of 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 0.83, p = 2.6 × 10−8). In contrast, 4 amino acids, including glutamate (OR for 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.60, p = 1.6 × 10−5), were positively associated with risk. Adjusting for BMI partly attenuated the risk association for some—but not all—metabolites, whereas other known risk factors of kidney cancer, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, had minimal impact on the observed associations. A mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of the influence of BMI on the blood metabolome highlighted that some metabolites associated with kidney cancer risk are influenced by BMI. Specifically, elevated BMI appeared to decrease levels of several GPLs that were also found inversely associated with kidney cancer risk (e.g., −0.17 SD change [ßBMI] in 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-linoleoyl-GPC (P-16:0/18:2) levels per SD change in BMI, p = 3.4 × 10−5). BMI was also associated with increased levels of glutamate (ßBMI: 0.12, p = 1.5 × 10−3). While our results were robust across the participating studies, they were limited to study participants of European descent, and it will, therefore, be important to evaluate if our findings can be generalised to populations with different genetic backgrounds.Conclusions: This study suggests a potentially important role of the blood metabolome in kidney cancer aetiology by highlighting a wide range of metabolites associated with the risk of developing kidney cancer and the extent to which changes in levels of these metabolites are driven by BMI - the principal modifiable risk factor of kidney cancer.
  • Huang, Joyce Y., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating markers of cellular immune activation in prediagnostic blood sample and lung cancer risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 146:9, s. 2394-2405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all p(trend) < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.
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