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Sökning: WFRF:(Leitzmann Michael F.) > (2005-2009)

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2.
  • Koushik, Anita, et al. (författare)
  • Fruits, vegetables, and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Univ Montreal, CHUM, Ctr Rech, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ H2W 1V1, Canada. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Loma Linda Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Amer Canc Soc, Atlanta, GA 30329 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Buffalo State Univ New York, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14222 USA. Roswell Pk Canc Inst, Dept Canc Prevent & Populat Sci, Buffalo, NY 14263 USA. Dana Farber Canc Inst, Dept Adult Oncol, Boston, MA USA. TNO, Dept Food & Chem Risk Anal, Zeist, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pathol, Karmanos Canc Inst, Detroit, MI 48201 USA. Natl Canc Inst, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, I-20133 Milan, Italy. Karolinska Inst, Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. AZJ, Div Epidemiol, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:19, s. 1471-1483
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fruit and vegetable intakes have been associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer; however, in more recent studies associations have been less consistent. Statistical power to examine associations by colon site has been limited in previous studies. Methods Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to colon cancer risk were examined in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated separately in 14 studies using Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a randomeffects model. Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, and total vegetables were categorized according to quintiles and absolute cutpoints. Analyses were conducted for colon cancer overall and for proximal and distal colon cancer separately. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among 756217 men and women followed for up to 6 to 20 years, depending on the study, 5838 were diagnosed with colon cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) of colon cancer for the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake were 0.91 (0.82 to 1-01 1 P-trend =.19) for total fruits and vegetables, 0.93 (0.85 to 1.02, P-trend =.28) for total fruits, and 0.94 (0.86 to 1.02, P-trend =.17) for total vegetables. Similar results were observed when intakes were categorized by identical absolute cut points across studies (pooled multivariable FIR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.77 to 1.05 for 800 or more versus <200 g/day of total fruits and vegetables, P-trend =.06). The age-standardized incidence rates of colon cancer for these two intake categories were 54 and 61 per 100000 person-years, respectively. When analyzed by colon site, the pooled multivariable RRs (95% Cis) comparing total fruit and vegetable intakes of 800 or more versus less than 200 g/day were 0.74 (0.57 to 0.95, P-trend =.02) for distal colon cancers and 1.02 (0.82 to 1.27, P-trend =.57) for proximal colon cancers. Similar site-specific associations were observed for total fruits and total vegetables. Conclusion Fruit and vegetable intakes were not strongly associated with colon cancer risk overall but may be associated with a lower risk of distal colon cancer.
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3.
  • Lee, Jung Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol intake and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 12 prospective studies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Lab, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Natl Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Dept Hlth & Hlth Serv, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA. Univ So Calif, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA USA. Univ So Calif, Norriss Comprehens Canc Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA. Maastricht Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Nutr & Toxicol Res Inst, Maastricht, Netherlands. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. No Calif Canc Ctr, Fremont, CA USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveillance Res, Atlanta, GA USA. Univ Toronto, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Mayo Clin, Coll Med, Dept Urol, Jacksonville, FL USA. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent, Helsinki, Finland. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:10, s. 801-810
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The association between alcohol intake and risk of renal cell cancer has been inconsistent in case-control studies. An inverse association between alcohol intake and risk of renal cell cancer has been suggested in a few prospective studies, but each of these studies included a small number of cases. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 12 prospective studies that included 530469 women and 229575 men with maximum follow-up times of 7-20 years. All participants had completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RRs) for renal cell cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 1430 (711 women and 719 men) cases of incident renal cell cancer were identified. The study-standardized incidence rates of renal cell cancer were 23 per 100000 person-years among nondrinkers and 15 per 100000 person-years among those who drank 15 g/day or more of alcohol. Compared with non-drinking, alcohol consumption (>= 15 g/day, equivalent to slightly more than one alcoholic drink per day) was associated with a decreased risk of renal cell cancer (pooled multivariable RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval = 0.60 to 0.86; P-trend <.001); statistically significant inverse trends with increasing intake were seen in both women and men. No difference by sex was observed (P-heterogeneity = .89). Associations between alcohol intake and renal cell cancer were not statistically different across alcoholic beverage type (beer versus wine versus liquor) (P = .40). Conclusion Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer among both women and men in this pooled analysis.
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4.
  • Lee, Jung Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Fat, Protein, and Meat Consumption and Renal Cell Cancer Risk : A Pooled Analysis of 13 Prospective Studies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 100:23, s. 1695-1706
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results of several case-control studies suggest that high consumption of meat (all meat, red meat, or processed meat) is associated with an increased risk of renal cell cancer, but only a few prospective studies have examined the associations of intakes of meat, fat, and protein with renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies that included 530 469 women and 244 483 men and had follow-up times of up to 7-20 years to examine associations between meat, fat, and protein intakes and the risk of renal cell cancer. All participants had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at study entry. Using the primary data from each study, we calculated the study-specific relative risks (RRs) for renal cell cancer by using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled these RRs by using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 1478 incident cases of renal cell cancer were identified (709 in women and 769 in men). We observed statistically significant positive associations or trends in pooled age-adjusted models for intakes of total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, total protein, and animal protein. However, these associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index, fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol intake. For example, the pooled age-adjusted RR of renal cell cancer for the highest vs the lowest quintile of intake for total fat was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.56; P-trend = .001) and for total protein was 1.17 (95% CI = 0.99 to 1.38; P-trend = .02). By comparison, the pooled multivariable RR for the highest vs the lowest quintile of total fat intake was 1.10 (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.32; P-trend = .31) and of total protein intake was 1.06 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.26; P-trend = .37). Intakes of red meat, processed meat, poultry, or seafood were not associated with the risk of renal cell cancer. Intakes of fat and protein or their subtypes, red meat, processed meat, poultry, and seafood are not associated with risk of renal cell cancer.
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5.
  • Lee, Jung Eun, et al. (författare)
  • Intakes of Fruit, Vegetables, and Carotenoids and Renal Cell Cancer Risk : A Pooled Analysis of 13 Prospective Studies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 18:6, s. 1730-1739
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for >= 600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for 400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for alpha-carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for beta-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1730-9)
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6.
  • Mitrou, Panagiota N., et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population - Results from the NIH-AARP diet and health study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - : American Medical Association. - 0003-9926. ; 167:22, s. 2461-2468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Mediterranean diet has been suggested to play a beneficial role for health and longevity. However, to our knowledge, no prospective US study has investigated the Mediterranean dietary pattern in relation to mortality. Methods: Study participants included 214 284 men and 166 012 women in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP ( formerly known as the American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study. During follow-up for all-cause mortality (1995-2005), 27 799 deaths were documented. In the first 5 years of follow-up, 5985 cancer deaths and 3451 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths were reported. We used a 9-point score to assess conformity with the Mediterranean dietary pattern ( components included vegetables, legumes, fruits, nuts, whole grains, fish, monounsaturated fat saturated fat ratio, alcohol, and meat). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using age- and multivariate-adjusted Cox models. Results: The Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In men, the multivariate HRs comparing high to low conformity for all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality were 0.79 ( 95% CI, 0.76-0.83), 0.78 ( 95% CI, 0.69-0.87), and 0.83 ( 95% CI, 0.76-0.91), respectively. In women, an inverse association was seen with high conformity with this pattern: decreased risks that ranged from 12% for cancer mortality to 20% for all-cause mortality (P=.04 and P <.001, respectively, for the trend). When we restricted our analyses to never smokers, associations were virtually unchanged. Conclusion: These results provide strong evidence for a beneficial effect of higher conformity with the Mediterranean dietary pattern on risk of death from all causes, including deaths due to CVD and cancer, in a US population.
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7.
  • Flood, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal cancer among middle-aged Americans
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 1938-3207. ; 88:1, s. 176-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although diet has long been suspected as an etiological factor for colorectal cancer, studies of single foods and nutrients have provided inconsistent results. Objective: We used factor analysis methods to study associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in middle-aged Americans. Design: Diet was assessed among 293 615 men and 198 767 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Principal components factor analysis identified 3 primary dietary patterns: a fruit and vegetables, a diet foods, and a red meat and potatoes pattern. State cancer registries identified 2151 incident cases of colorectal cancer in men and 959 in women between 1995 and 2000. Results: Men with high scores on the fruit and vegetable pattern were at decreased risk [relative risk (RR) for quintile (Q) 5 versus Q1: 0.8 1; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.93; P for trend = 0.004]. Both men and women had a similar risk reduction with high scores on the diet food factor: men (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.94; P for trend = 0.001) and women (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.07; P for trend = 0.06). High scores on the red meat factor were associated with increased risk: men (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02,1.35; P for trend = 0.14) and women (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.83; P for trend = 0.0002). Conclusions: These results suggest that dietary patterns characterized by a low frequency of meat and potato consumption and frequent consumption of fruit and vegetables and fat-reduced foods are consistent with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.
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8.
  • Smith-Warner, Stephanie A., et al. (författare)
  • Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies - The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA. NCI, Nutr Epidemiol Branch, Bethesda, MD USA. Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Hlth Res, Loma Linda, CA 92350 USA. Univ So Calif, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA USA. Univ So Calif, Norris Comprehens Canc Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA. NCI, Epidemiol Unit, Milan, Italy. Maastricht Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, Maastricht, Netherlands. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA USA. Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA USA. Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Channing Lab, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Harvard Univ, Ctr Canc Prevent, Boston, MA USA. Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA. SUNY Buffalo, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Buffalo, NY USA. TNO Qual Life, Dept Epidemiol, Zeist, Netherlands. No Calif Canc Ctr, Fremont, CA USA. NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD USA. Amer Canc Soc, Epidemiol & Surveilliance Res, Atlanta, GA USA. Univ Toronto, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada. Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY USA. NYU, Sch Med, Dept Environm Med, New York, NY USA. Natl Publ Hlth Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, Helsinki, Finland. Natl Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 163:11, s. 1053-1064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer, begun in 1991. In the Pooling Project, the primary data from prospective cohort studies meeting prespecified inclusion criteria are analyzed using standardized criteria for modeling of exposure, confounding, and outcome variables. In addition to evaluating main exposure-disease associations, analyses are also conducted to evaluate whether exposure-disease associations are modified by other dietary and nondietary factors or vary among population subgroups or particular cancer subtypes. Study-specific relative risks are calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random- or mixed-effects model. The study-specific estimates are weighted by the inverse of their variances in forming summary estimates. Most of the methods used in the Pooling Project may be adapted for examining associations with dietary and nondietary factors in pooled analyses of case-control studies or case-control and cohort studies combined.
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