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Sökning: WFRF:(Lewis Victor A) > (2015-2019)

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  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
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  • Kehoe, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Make EU trade with Brazil sustainable
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 364:6438, s. 341-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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  • Arai, Sally, et al. (författare)
  • Increasing incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic transplantation : a report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. - 1083-8791 .- 1523-6536. ; 21:2, s. 266-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although transplant practices have changed over the last decades, no information is available on trends in incidence and outcome of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) over time. This study used the central database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to describe time trends for cGVHD incidence, nonrelapse mortality, and risk factors for cGVHD. The 12-year period was divided into 3 intervals, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2003, and 2004 to 2007, and included 26,563 patients with acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Multivariate analysis showed an increased incidence of cGVHD in more recent years (odds ratio = 1.19, P < .0001), and this trend was still seen when adjusting for donor type, graft type, or conditioning intensity. In patients with cGVHD, nonrelapse mortality has decreased over time, but at 5 years there were no significant differences among different time periods. Risk factors for cGVHD were in line with previous studies. This is the first comprehensive characterization of the trends in cGVHD incidence and underscores the mounting need for addressing this major late complication of transplantation in future research.
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  • Ade, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The Simons Observatory : science goals and forecasts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; :2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Simons Observatory (SO) is a new cosmic microwave background experiment being built on Cerro Toco in Chile, due to begin observations in the early 2020s. We describe the scientific goals of the experiment, motivate the design, and forecast its performance. SO will measure the temperature and polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background in six frequency bands centered at: 27, 39, 93, 145, 225 and 280 GHz. The initial con figuration of SO will have three small-aperture 0.5-m telescopes and one large-aperture 6-m telescope, with a total of 60,000 cryogenic bolometers. Our key science goals are to characterize the primordial perturbations, measure the number of relativistic species and the mass of neutrinos, test for deviations from a cosmological constant, improve our understanding of galaxy evolution, and constrain the duration of reionization. The small aperture telescopes will target the largest angular scales observable from Chile, mapping approximate to 10% of the sky to a white noise level of 2 mu K-arcmin in combined 93 and 145 GHz bands, to measure the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, at a target level of sigma(r) = 0.003. The large aperture telescope will map approximate to 40% of the sky at arcminute angular resolution to an expected white noise level of 6 mu K-arcmin in combined 93 and 145 GHz bands, overlapping with the majority of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope sky region and partially with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument. With up to an order of magnitude lower polarization noise than maps from the Planck satellite, the high-resolution sky maps will constrain cosmological parameters derived from the damping tail, gravitational lensing of the microwave background, the primordial bispectrum, and the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects, and will aid in delensing the large-angle polarization signal to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio. The survey will also provide a legacy catalog of 16,000 galaxy clusters and more than 20,000 extragalactic sources.
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  • Anand, Sonia S, et al. (författare)
  • Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in patients with stable peripheral or carotid artery disease: an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 391:10117, s. 219-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with peripheral artery disease have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Antiplatelet agents are widely used to reduce these complications.This was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial for which patients were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community practices from 33 countries across six continents. Eligible patients had a history of peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities (previous peripheral bypass surgery or angioplasty, limb or foot amputation, intermittent claudication with objective evidence of peripheral artery disease), of the carotid arteries (previous carotid artery revascularisation or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of at least 50%), or coronary artery disease with an ankle-brachial index of less than 0·90. After a 30-day run-in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive oral rivaroxaban (2·5 mg twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban twice a day (5 mg with aspirin placebo once a day), or to aspirin once a day (100 mg and rivaroxaban placebo twice a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patient, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke; the primary peripheral artery disease outcome was major adverse limb events including major amputation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants.Between March 12, 2013, and May 10, 2016, we enrolled 7470 patients with peripheral artery disease from 558 centres. The combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (126 [5%] of 2492 vs 174 [7%] of 2504; hazard ratio [HR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·90, p=0·0047), and major adverse limb events including major amputation (32 [1%] vs 60 [2%]; HR 0·54 95% CI 0·35-0·82, p=0·0037). Rivaroxaban 5 mg twice a day compared with aspirin alone did not significantly reduce the composite endpoint (149 [6%] of 2474 vs 174 [7%] of 2504; HR 0·86, 95% CI 0·69-1·08, p=0·19), but reduced major adverse limb events including major amputation (40 [2%] vs 60 [2%]; HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·45-1·00, p=0·05). The median duration of treatment was 21 months. The use of the rivaroxaban plus aspirin combination increased major bleeding compared with the aspirin alone group (77 [3%] of 2492 vs 48 [2%] of 2504; HR 1·61, 95% CI 1·12-2·31, p=0·0089), which was mainly gastrointestinal. Similarly, major bleeding occurred in 79 (3%) of 2474 patients with rivaroxaban 5 mg, and in 48 (2%) of 2504 in the aspirin alone group (HR 1·68, 95% CI 1·17-2·40; p=0·0043).Low-dose rivaroxaban taken twice a day plus aspirin once a day reduced major adverse cardiovascular and limb events when compared with aspirin alone. Although major bleeding was increased, fatal or critical organ bleeding was not. This combination therapy represents an important advance in the management of patients with peripheral artery disease. Rivaroxaban alone did not significantly reduce major adverse cardiovascular events compared with asprin alone, but reduced major adverse limb events and increased major bleeding.Bayer AG.
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8.
  • Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of combined iron supplementation and simulated hypoxia on the haematological module of the athlete biological passport
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Drug Testing and Analysis. - 1942-7603 .- 1942-7611. ; 10:4, s. 731-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The integrity of the athlete biological passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, for example, altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n = 34) undertaking 3 weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d(-1), 3000 m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing 2 weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure. Venous blood was sampled twice prior, weekly during, and up to 6 weeks after altitude. Individual ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (%retic), and OFF score were calculated using the adaptive model and assessed at 99% and 99.9% specificity. Eleven athletes returned values outside of the calculated reference ranges at 99%, with 8 at 99.9%. The percentage of athletes exceeding the thresholds in each group was similar, but IV returned the most individual occurrences. A similar frequency of abnormalities occurred across the 3 biomarkers, with abnormal [Hb] and OFF score values arising mainly during-, and %retic values mainly post-altitude. Removing samples collected during altitude from the model resulted in 10 athletes returning abnormal values at 99% specificity, 2 of whom had not triggered the model previously. In summary, the abnormalities observed in response to iron supplementation and hypoxia were not systematic and mostly in line with expected physiological adaptations. They do not represent a uniform weakness in the ABP. Nevertheless, altitude training and iron supplementation should be carefully considered by experts evaluating abnormal ABP profiles.
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  • Garvican-Lewis, Laura A., et al. (författare)
  • Intravenous Iron Does Not Augment the Hemoglobin Mass Response to Simulated Hypoxia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131 .- 1530-0315. ; 50:8, s. 1669-1678
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Iron is integral for erythropoietic adaptation to hypoxia, yet the importance of supplementary iron compared with existing stores is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the magnitude of the hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) in response to altitude in athletes with intravenous (IV), oral, or placebo iron supplementation. Methods Thirty-four, nonanemic, endurance-trained athletes completed 3 wk of simulated altitude (3000 m, 14 hd(-1)), receiving two to three bolus iron injections (ferric carboxymaltose), daily oral iron supplementation (ferrous sulfate), or a placebo, commencing 2 wk before and throughout altitude exposure. Hb(mass) and markers of iron regulation were assessed at baseline (day -14), immediately before (day 0), weekly during (days 8 and 15), and immediately, 1, 3, and 6 wk after (days 22, 28, 42, and 63) the completion of altitude exposure. Results Hb(mass) significantly increased after altitude exposure in athletes with IV (mean % [90% confidence interval (CI)], 3.7% [2.8-4.7]) and oral (3.2% [2.2-4.2]) supplementation and remained elevated at 7 d postaltitude in oral (2.9% [1.5-4.3]) and 21 d after in IV (3.0% [1.5-4.6]) supplementation. Hb(mass) was not significantly higher than baseline at any time point in placebo. Conclusions Iron supplementation appears necessary for optimal erythropoietic adaptation to altitude exposure. IV iron supplementation during 3 wk of simulated live high-train low altitude training offered no additional benefit in terms of the magnitude of the erythropoietic response for nonanemic endurance athletes compared with oral supplementation.
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