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Sökning: WFRF:(Lindahl Bertil 1957 ) > (2015-2019)

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  • Jönelid, Birgitta, 1965- (författare)
  • Importance of peripheral arterial disease as a risk marker in patients with myocardial infarction
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this thesis was to describe the true prevalence of widespread arterial disease in a cohort with patients with a recent myocardial infarction (MI) to find valuable clinical methods to detect these patients. Our aim was also to investigate biomarker relationships with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and the importance of PAD in patients’ long-term outcomes.We studied patients with a recent MI in a prospective observational study, the REBUS ((Relevance of Biomarkers for Future Risk of Thromboembolic Events in Unselected Post-myocardial Infarction Patients) trial. A total of 421 patients were included in the study, 390 of whom had their ankle-brachial index (ABI) measured and a mean-time follow up of 5.5 years. Atherosclerotic changes were assessed in three arterial beds by coronary angiography, measuring the ABI and carotid ultrasound. Ninety-two biochemical biomarkers were assessed at baseline by a proximity extension assay (PEA) chip. 263 out of 421 filled in a self-administered Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). Polyvascular (PvD) disease was defined as pathological findings in all three arterial beds.We found that PAD and PvD are underdiagnosed in patients who suffered a recent MI. We also found the ABI to be a strong and useful method to identify patients with PAD as well as patients with more widespread arterial disease, such as PvD (paper I).The results of the scoring system, the WIQ, showed it is useful for finding patients with PAD and PvD, even when completed soon after an acute MI event (paper II).We also found that biochemical biomarkers associated with the inflammatory pathway – tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR-1), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR-2) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) – were able to predict pathological ABI, i.e. PAD, in these MI patients. These results could also be validated in another observational study and cohort of MI patients, the VaMIS cohort (paper III). Pathological ABI was also found to be a strong predictor for cardiovascular events of all-cause mortality, new ACS, and a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, new ACS, new stroke/TIA or new PAD event. When evaluating the three inflammatory biomarkers as a surrogate marker for ABI, they showed a similar association with all-cause death and the composite endpoint (paper IV).
  • Jönelid, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Low Walking Impairment Questionnaire score after a recent myocardial infarction identifies patients with polyvascular disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease. - : SAGE Publications. - 2048-0040. ; 8, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To evaluate whether the Walking Impairment Questionnaire score could identify patients with polyvascular disease in a population with recent myocardial infarction and their association with cardiovascular events during two-year follow-up.Design: A prospective observational study.Setting: Patients admitted to the acute coronary care unit, the Department of Cardiology, Uppsala University Hospital.Participants: Patients admitted with acute Non-STEMI- or STEMI-elevation myocardial infarction.Main outcome measures: The Walking Impairment Questionnaire, developed as a self-administered instrument to assess walking distance, speed, and stair climbing in patients with peripheral artery disease, predicts future cardiovascular events and mortality. Two hundred and sixty-three patients with recent myocardial infarction answered Walking Impairment Questionnaire. Polyvascular disease was defined as abnormal findings in the coronary- and carotid arteries and an abnormal ankle-brachial index. The calculated score for each of all three categories were divided into quartiles with the lowest score in first quartile.Results: The lowest (worst) quartile in all three Walking Impairment Questionnaire categories was associated with polyvascular disease, fully adjusted; distance, odds ratio (OR) 5.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-16.1); speed, OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.5-36.5); stair climbing, OR 8.4 (95% CI 1.0-73.6). In stair climbing score, patients with the lowest (worst) score had a higher risk for the composite cardiovascular endpoint compared to the highest (best) score; hazard ratio 5.3 (95% CI 1.5-19.0). The adherence to medical treatment was high (between 81.7% and 99.2%).Conclusions: The Walking Impairment Questionnaire is a simple tool to identify myocardial infarction patients with more widespread atherosclerotic disease and although well treated medically, stair climbing predicts cardiovascular events.
  • Katus, Hugo, et al. (författare)
  • Early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 38:41, s. 3049-3055
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The diagnostic evaluation of acute chest pain has been augmented in recent years by advances in the sensitivity and precision of cardiac troponin assays, new biomarkers, improvements in imaging modalities, and release of new clinical decision algorithms. This progress has enabled physicians to diagnose or rule-out acute myocardial infarction earlier after the initial patient presentation, usually in emergency department settings, which may facilitate prompt initiation of evidence-based treatments, investigation of alternative diagnoses for chest pain, or discharge, and permit better utilization of healthcare resources. A non-trivial proportion of patients fall in an indeterminate category according to rule-out algorithms, and minimal evidence-based guidance exists for the optimal evaluation, monitoring, and treatment of these patients. The Cardiovascular Round Table of the ESC proposes approaches for the optimal application of early strategies in clinical practice to improve patient care following the review of recent advances in the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The following specific 'indeterminate' patient categories were considered: (i) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin <99th percentile; (ii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin <99th percentile but above the limit of detection; (iii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile but without dynamic change; and (iv) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile and dynamic change but without coronary plaque rupture/erosion/dissection. Definitive evidence is currently lacking to manage these patients whose early diagnosis is 'indeterminate' and these areas of uncertainty should be assigned a high priority for research.
  • Näslund, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) : a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 393:10167, s. 133-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease often fails because of poor adherence among practitioners and individuals to prevention guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-based pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, targeting both primary care physicians and individuals, improves prevention.METHODS: Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial that was integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, an ongoing population-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in northern Sweden. Individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years with one or more conventional risk factors were eligible to participate. Participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, and ultrasound assessment of carotid intima media wall thickness and plaque formation. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 with a computer-generated randomisation list to an intervention group (pictorial representation of carotid ultrasound plus a nurse phone call to confirm understanding) or a control group (not informed). The primary outcomes, Framingham risk score (FRS) and European systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE), were assessed after 1 year among participants who were followed up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01849575.FINDINGS: 3532 individuals were enrolled between April 29, 2013, and June 7, 2016, of which 1783 were randomly assigned to the control group and 1749 were assigned to the intervention group. 3175 participants completed the 1-year follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, FRS and SCORE differed significantly between groups (FRS 1·07 [95% CI 0·11 to 2·03, p=0·0017] and SCORE 0·16 [0·02 to 0·30, p=0·0010]). FRS decreased from baseline to the 1-year follow-up in the intervention group and increased in the control group (-0·58 [95% CI -0·86 to -0·30] vs 0·35 [0·08 to 0·63]). SCORE increased in both groups (0·13 [95% CI 0·09 to 0·18] vs 0·27 [0·23 to 0·30]).INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence of the contributory role of pictorial presentation of silent atherosclerosis for prevention of cardiovascular disease. It supports further development of methods to reduce the major problem of low adherence to medication and lifestyle modification.
  • Alabas, Oras A., et al. (författare)
  • Sex Differences in Treatments, Relative Survival, and Excess Mortality Following Acute Myocardial Infarction : National Cohort Study Using the SWEDEHEART Registry
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980. ; 6:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - This study assessed sex differences in treatments, all-cause mortality, relative survival, and excess mortality following acute myocardial infarction.Methods and Results - A population-based cohort of all hospitals providing acute myocardial infarction care in Sweden (SWEDEHEART [Swedish Web System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies]) from 2003 to 2013 was included in the analysis. Excess mortality rate ratios (EMRRs), adjusted for clinical characteristics and guideline-indicated treatments after matching by age, sex, and year to background mortality data, were estimated. Although there were no sex differences in all-cause mortality adjusted for age, year of hospitalization, and comorbidities for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI at 1 year (mortality rate ratio: 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.05] and 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-.99], respectively) and 5 years (mortality rate ratio: 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99-1.07] and 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-.99], respectively), excess mortality was higher among women compared with men for STEMI and non-STEMI at 1 year (EMRR: 1.89 [95% CI, 1.66-2.16] and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.16-1.24], respectively) and 5 years (EMRR: 1.60 [95% CI, 1.48-1.72] and 1.26 [95% CI, 1.21-1.32], respectively). After further adjustment for the use of guideline-indicated treatments, excess mortality among women with non-STEMI was not significant at 1 year (EMRR: 1.01 [95% CI, 0.97-1.04]) and slightly higher at 5 years (EMRR: 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02-1.12]). For STEMI, adjustment for treatments attenuated the excess mortality for women at 1 year (EMRR: 1.43 [95% CI, 1.26-1.62]) and 5 years (EMRR: 1.31 [95% CI, 1.19-1.43]).Conclusions - Women with acute myocardial infarction did not have statistically different all-cause mortality, but had higher excess mortality compared with men that was attenuated after adjustment for the use of guideline-indicated treatments. This suggests that improved adherence to guideline recommendations for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction may reduce premature cardiovascular death among women.
  • Ambavane, Apoorva, et al. (författare)
  • Economic evaluation of the one-hour rule-out and rule-in algorithm for acute myocardial infarction using the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay in the emergency department
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 12:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The 1-hour (h) algorithm triages patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to the emergency department (ED) towards "rule-out," "rule-in," or "observation," depending on baseline and 1-h levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). The economic consequences of applying the accelerated 1-h algorithm are unknown.METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a post-hoc economic analysis in a large, diagnostic, multicenter study of hs-cTnT using central adjudication of the final diagnosis by two independent cardiologists. Length of stay (LoS), resource utilization (RU), and predicted diagnostic accuracy of the 1-h algorithm compared to standard of care (SoC) in the ED were estimated. The ED LoS, RU, and accuracy of the 1-h algorithm was compared to that achieved by the SoC at ED discharge. Expert opinion was sought to characterize clinical implementation of the 1-h algorithm, which required blood draws at ED presentation and 1h, after which "rule-in" patients were transferred for coronary angiography, "rule-out" patients underwent outpatient stress testing, and "observation" patients received SoC. Unit costs were for the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Germany. The sensitivity and specificity for the 1-h algorithm were 87% and 96%, respectively, compared to 69% and 98% for SoC. The mean ED LoS for the 1-h algorithm was 4.3h-it was 6.5h for SoC, which is a reduction of 33%. The 1-h algorithm was associated with reductions in RU, driven largely by the shorter LoS in the ED for patients with a diagnosis other than AMI. The estimated total costs per patient were £2,480 for the 1-h algorithm compared to £4,561 for SoC, a reduction of up to 46%.CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the use of 1-h algorithm is associated with reduction in overall AMI diagnostic costs, provided it is carefully implemented in clinical practice. These results need to be prospectively validated in the future.
  • Avdic, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in sickness absence and the morbidity-mortality paradox : a longitudinal study using Swedish administrative registers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ. - 2044-6055. ; 9:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To analyse whether gender-specific health behaviour can be an explanation for why women outlive men, while having worse morbidity outcomes, known as the morbidity-mortality or gender paradox. Setting The working population in Sweden. Participants Thirty per cent random sample of Swedish women and men aged 40-59 with a hospital admission in the 1993-2004 period were included. The sample for analysis consists of 233274 individuals (115430 men and 117844 women) and in total 1 867013 observations on sickness absence. Intervention Hospital admission across 18 disease categories. Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were sickness absence (morbidity) and mortality. Longitudinal data at the individual level allow us to study how sickness absence changed after a hospital admission in men and women using a difference-in-differences regression analysis. Cox regression models are used to study differences in mortality after the admission. Results Women increased their sickness absence after a hospital admission by around five more days per year than men (95% CI 5.25 to 6.22). At the same time, men had higher mortality in the 18 diagnosis categories analysed. The pattern of more sickness absence in women was the same across 17 different diagnosis categories. For neoplasm, with a 57% higher risk of death for men (54.18%-59.89%), the results depended on the imputation method of sickness for those deceased. By using the premortality means of sickness absence, men had an additional 14.47 (-16.30- -12.64) days of absence, but with zero imputation women had an additional 1.6 days of absence (0.05-3.20). Analyses with or without covariates revealed a coherent picture. Conclusions The pattern of increased sickness absence (morbidity) and lower mortality in women provides evidence on the more proactive and preventive behaviour of women than of men, which could thus explain the morbidity-mortality paradox.
  • Bahrmann, Philipp, et al. (författare)
  • Quantification of Renal Function and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients Admitted to the Emergency Department with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndromes : Results from the TRAPID-AMI Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Laboratory. - 1433-6510. ; 63:9, s. 1457-1466
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Increases in the novel serum marker cystatin C are detectable much earlier in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) even when levels of serum creatinine are still in the normal range. A major factor causing a decrease in serum creatinine is increasing age. Patients with CKD are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) than a healthy population and to suffer premature deaths from CVD related to CKD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cystatin C, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) predict cardiovascular mortality in patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS).Methods: In 1,282 patients (mean age 62 15 years, 477 women, 805 men) with suspected ACS, baseline cystatin C concentrations, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured at the ED. Clinical assessment and serial high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) measurements were used for the diagnosis of ACS. Seventeen cardiovascular deaths were registered during a median follow-up of 365 days.Results: HRs from univariate Cox regression models for each of the potential biomarkers were 12.02 (95% CI 5.10 - 28.34) for cystatin C, 4.53 (1.75 - 11.70) for serum creatinine, and 0.97 (0.96 - 0.99) for eGFR. All three biomarkers showed a significant association with cardiovascular mortality in univariate analyses. The HRs from a model with all three potential biomarkers were 59.21 (95% CI 9.69 - 361.76) for cystatin C, 0.08 (0.01 - 0.58) for serum creatinine, and 0.98 (0.96 - 1.01) for eGFR. The risk association was significant for ln (cystatin C) and ln (serum creatinine).Conclusions: Results of this prospective study show that the quantification of renal function using cystatin C is useful for predicting cardiovascular mortality in patients with suspected ACS at the ED.
  • Baron, Tomasz, et al. (författare)
  • Biobank linked to SWEDEHEART quality registry-routine blood sample collection opens new opportunities for cardiovascular research
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - : Uppsala Medical Society. - 0300-9734 .- 2000-1967. ; 124:1, s. 12-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-quality biobanking within routine health services, through the use of existing health-care practices and infrastructure, with respect to safety and integrity of patients in line with the Swedish Biobank Act, enables large-scale collection of biological material at reasonable costs. Complementing the extensive information on myocardial infarction patients from a national registry gives unique opportunities for research focusing on better understanding of cardiovascular disease occurrence and prognosis, developing of new diagnostic methods, and personalized treatments with greater efficacy and fewer side effects.
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