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1.
  • Bengtsson, Anna, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • The beneficial effect over 3 years by pictorial information to patients and their physician about subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk : results from the VIPVIZA randomized clinical trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 2666-6677. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Non-adherence to guidelines and preventive measures is a major challenge, particularly so to ob- tain long-term adherence to lifestyle changes and recommended medication. The objective was to investigate if pictorial information regarding subclinical carotid atherosclerosis provided to individuals and physicians gave sustained effects on cardiovascular risk beyond the previously reported effect after 1 year and up to 3 years. Methods: A Prospective Randomized Open Blinded End-point (PROBE) trial. Within a CVD prevention program in Västerbotten County, Sweden, 3532 healthy individuals aged 40, 50 or 60 years were enrolled and 1:1 ran- domized to intervention ( n = 1749; pictorial information with additional prevention materials to participants and physicians) or control group ( n = 1783; no pictorial information to participants and physicians). Preventive measures were managed within primary care. Participants were investigated at baseline during 2013–2016 and at follow-up after 1 and 3 years. Results: A beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk was observed at 3-year follow-up; Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was 13.38 for the intervention group and 14.08 for the control group ( p = 0.047) and SCORE was 1.69 vs. 1.82 ( p = 0.022). The effect observed at 1-year was sustained over 3 years after adjustment for sex and education and more pronounced among participants with a severe atherosclerotic picture at baseline.Conclusions: This study provides evidence of sustained beneficial effects on the adherence to prevention guidelines over 3 years of pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, resulting in lower cardiovascular risk regardless of sex and educational level. Direct visualization of the underlying still subclinical atherosclerotic disease, rather than just indirect information about risk factors and statistical risk of future myocardial infarction, stroke and death, is one way to tackle the problem of non-adherence to prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
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2.
  • Christersson, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Screening for Biomarkers Associated with Left Ventricular Function During Follow-up After Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research. - : Springer Nature. - 1937-5387 .- 1937-5395. ; 16:1, s. 244-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A proportion of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) will suffer progressive remodeling of the left ventricular (LV). The aim was to screen for important biomarkers from a large-scale protein profiling in 420 ACS patients and define biomarkers associated with reduced LV function early and 1 year after the ACS. Transferrin receptor protein 1 and NT-proBNP were associated with LV function early and after 1 year, whereas osteopontin and soluble ST2 were associated with LV function in the early phase and, tissue-type plasminogen activator after 1 year. Fatty-acid-binding protein and galectin 3 were related to worse GLS but not to LVEF 1 year after the ACS. Proteins involved in remodeling and iron transport in cardiomyocytes were related to worse LV function after ACS. Biomarkers for energy metabolism and fibrosis were exclusively related to worse LV function by GLS. Studies on the functions of these proteins might add knowledge to the biological processes involved in heart failure in long term after ACS.
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3.
  • Alabas, Oras A., et al. (författare)
  • Statistics on mortality following acute myocardial infarction in 842 897 Europeans
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Research. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0008-6363 .- 1755-3245. ; 116:1, s. 149-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To compare ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) mortality between Sweden and the UK, adjusting for background population rates of expected death, case mix, and treatments.Methods and results: National data were collected from hospitals in Sweden [n = 73 hospitals, 180 368 patients, Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART)] and the UK [n = 247, 662 529 patients, Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP)] between 2003 and 2013. There were lower rates of revascularization [STEMI (43.8% vs. 74.9%); NSTEMI (27.5% vs. 43.6%)] and pharmacotherapies at time of hospital discharge including [aspirin (82.9% vs. 90.2%) and (79.9% vs. 88.0%), beta-blockers (73.4% vs. 86.4%) and (65.3% vs. 85.1%)] in the UK compared with Sweden, respectively. Standardized net probability of death (NPD) between admission and 1 month was higher in the UK for STEMI [8.0 (95% confidence interval 7.4-8.5) vs. 6.7 (6.5-6.9)] and NSTEMI [6.8 (6.4-7.2) vs. 4.9 (4.7-5.0)]. Between 6 months and 1 year and more than 1 year, NPD remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI [2.9 (2.5-3.3) vs. 2.3 (2.2-2.5)] and [21.4 (20.0-22.8) vs. 18.3 (17.6-19.0)], but was similar for STEMI [0.7 (0.4-1.0) vs. 0.9 (0.7-1.0)] and [8.4 (6.7-10.1) vs. 8.3 (7.5-9.1)].Conclusion: Short-term mortality following STEMI and NSTEMI was higher in the UK compared with Sweden. Mid- and longer-term mortality remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI but was similar for STEMI. Differences in mortality may be due to differential use of guideline-indicated treatments.
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4.
  • Alfredsson, Joakim, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Randomized comparison of early supplemental oxygen versus ambient air in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction : Sex-related outcomes from DETO2X-AMI
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby Inc.. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 237, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oxygen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to sex in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI).Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction trial randomized 6,629 patients to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 hours or ambient air. In the present subgroup analysis including 5,010 patients (1,388 women and 3,622 men) with confirmed MI, we report the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure at long-term follow-up, stratified according to sex.Results: Event rate for the composite endpoint was 18.1% in women allocated to oxygen, compared to 21.4% in women allocated to ambient air (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.05). In men, the incidence was 13.6% in patients allocated to oxygen compared to 13.3% in patients allocated to ambient air (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23). No significant interaction in relation to sex was found (P=.16). Irrespective of allocated treatment, the composite endpoint occurred more often in women compared to men (19.7 vs 13.4%, HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.75). After adjustment for age alone, there was no difference between the sexes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), which remained consistent after multivariate adjustment.Conclusion: Oxygen therapy in normoxemic MI patients did not significantly affect all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for MI or heart failure in women or men. The observed worse outcome in women was explained by differences in baseline characteristics, especially age
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5.
  • Andell, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Oxygen therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction and concurrent normoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : a prespecified subgroup analysis from the DETO2X-AMI trial.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 9:8, s. 984-992
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial did not find any benefit of oxygen therapy compared to ambient air in normoxemic patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may both benefit and be harmed by supplemental oxygen. Thus we evaluated the effect of routine oxygen therapy compared to ambient air in normoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction.METHODS AND RESULTS: =0.77]); there were no significant treatment-by-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease interactions.CONCLUSIONS: Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients had twice the mortality rate compared to non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, this prespecified subgroup analysis from the DETO2X-AMI trial on oxygen therapy versus ambient air in normoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction revealed no evidence for benefit of routine oxygen therapy consistent with the main trial's findings.CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02290080.
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6.
  • Aurora, Lindsey, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic Utility of a Modified HEART Score When Different Troponin Cut Points Are Used.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Critical Pathways in Cardiology. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 1535-282X .- 1535-2811. ; 20:3, s. 134-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although the recommended cut point for cardiac troponin (cTn) is the 99th percentile, many institutions use cut points that are multiples higher than the 99th percentile for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Prior studies have shown that patients with a HEART score (HS) ≤ 3 and normal serial cTn values (modified HS) are at low risk for adverse events. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic utility of the HS when various cTn cut points are used.METHODS: This was a substudy of High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T assay for RAPID Rule-out of Acute Myocardial Infarction (TRAPID-AMI), a multicenter, international trial evaluating a rapid rule-out AMI study using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). One-thousand two-hundred eighty-two patients were evaluated for AMI from 12 centers in Europe, United States, and Australia from 2011 to 2013. Blood samples of hs-cTnT were collected at presentation and 2 hours, and each patient had a HS calculated. The US Food and Drug Administration approved 99th percentile for hs-cTnT (19 ng/L) was used.RESULTS: There were 213 (17%) AMIs. Within 30 days, there were an additional 2 AMIs and 8 deaths. The adverse event rates at 30 days (death/AMI) for a HS ≤ 3 and nonelevated hs-cTnT over 2 hours using increasing hs-cTnT cut points ranged from 0.6% to 5.1%.CONCLUSIONS: Using the recommended 99th percentile cut point for hs-cTnT, the combination of a HS ≤ 3 with nonelevated hs-cTnT values over 2 hours identifies a low-risk cohort who can be considered for discharge from the emergency department without further testing. The prognostic utility of this strategy is greatly lessened as higher hs-cTnT cut points are used.
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7.
  • Beckmann, Kerri, et al. (författare)
  • Spironolactone use is associated with lower prostate cancer risk : a population-wide case-control study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1365-7852 .- 1476-5608. ; 23:3, s. 527-533
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Spironolactone, a cheap effective diuretic used to manage hypertension and heart failure, also has anti-androgenic effects through its non-selective binding to steroid receptors, and hence may affect prostate cancer (PCa) risk. This study investigated the association between spironolactone use and PCa risk. For comparison, we also examined associations with thiazide diuretics which do not have anti-androgenic properties. Methods A matched case-control study was undertaken using population-wide data from the Prostate Cancer Data Base Sweden (PCBaSe). All PCa cases diagnosed from 2014 to 2016 were matched by birth year and county with PCa-free controls selected from the general population (1:5). Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations between spironolactone use (dose and duration) and PCa risk, and similarly for thiazides. Results Three percent of the 31,591 cases and 4% of the 156,802 controls had been prescribed spironolactone. Multivariable analyses indicated reduced risk of PCa among those ever exposed to spironolactone (odds ratio [OR] 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.89), with a stronger association for current users (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.69-0.86) than past users (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.97) and decreasing risk with increasing dose (p-trend < 0.001). No association was observed for thiazide exposure and PCa risk. Biases due to differences in prescribing patterns or frequency of PSA testing may have influenced these findings. Conclusion PCa risk was reduced among men exposed to the diuretic spironolactone. Further investigation of spironolactone's potential chemopreventive effects is warranted.
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8.
  • Bima, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Chest Pain in Cancer Patients Prevalence of Myocardial Infarction and Performance of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponins
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: JACC: CARDIOONCOLOGY. - : Elsevier. - 2666-0873. ; 5:5, s. 591-609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Little is known about patients with cancer presenting with acute chest discomfort to the emergency department (ED).OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), outcomes, and the diagnostic utility of recommended diagnostic tools in this population.METHODS Patients presenting with chest pain to the ED were prospectively enrolled in an international multicenter diagnostic study with central adjudication. Cancer status was assessed prospectively and additional cancer details retrospectively. Findings were externally validated in an independent multicenter cohort.RESULTS Among 8,267 patients, 711 (8.6%) had cancer. Patients with cancer had a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors and pre-existing cardiac disease. Total length of stay in the ED (5.2 hours vs 4.3 hours) and hospitalization rate (49.8% vs 34.3%) were both increased in patients with cancer (P < 0.001 for both). Among 8,093 patients eligible for the AMI analyses, those with cancer more often had final diagnoses of AMI (184 of 686 with cancer [26.8%] vs 1,561 of 7,407 without cancer [21.1%]; P < 0.001). In patients with cancer, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) but not high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) concentration had lower diagnostic accuracy for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (for hs-cTnT, area under the curve: 0.89 [95% CI: 0.86-0.92] vs 0.94 [95% CI: 0.93-0.94] [P < 0.001]; for hs-cTnI, area under the curve: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.91-0.95] vs 0.95 [95% CI: 0.94-0.95] [P 1/4 0.10]). In patients with cancer, the European Society of Cardiology 0/1-hour hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI algorithms maintained very high safety but had lower efficacy, with twice the number of patients remaining in the observe zone. Similar findings were obtained in the external validation cohort.CONCLUSIONS Patients with cancer have a substantially higher prevalence of AMI as the cause of chest pain. Length of ED stay and hospitalization rates are increased. The diagnostic performance of hs-cTnT and the efficacy of both the European Society of Cardiology 0/1-hour hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI algorithms is reduced. (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE] Study; NCT00470587) (J Am Coll Cardiol CardioOnc 2023;5:591-609) (c) 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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9.
  • Bäck, Maria, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • The SWEDEHEART secondary prevention and cardiac rehabilitation registry (SWEDEHEART CR registry)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal-Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2058-5225 .- 2058-1742. ; 7:5, s. 431-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The quality registry SWEDEHEART covers data across the patient pathway after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), from hospital care to secondary prevention. Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is strongly recommended after an MI, there is still heterogeneity regarding standards, uptake, and adherence rates. The aim of the SWEDEHEART-CR registry is to provide continuous information on secondary prevention and CR performance to support the audit and development of evidence-based practice. To facilitate quality improvement and research initiatives, a description of the characteristics and development of the SWEDEHEART-CR registry is needed. Methods and results The SWEDEHEART-CR registry starts with data obtained during hospital care and then collects data at out-patient visits 2 months and 1-year after discharge, and at start and end of an exercise-based CR programme. The registry data covers comorbidities, biochemistry, blood pressure, anthropometric variables, medication, psychosocial- and lifestyle variables, readmissions, patient-reported outcome measures, attendance in CR-related programmes, and physical fitness variables. Over 100 000 patients with MI have been included in the SWEDEHEART-CR registry since its start in 2005. From initially covering 35 centres (47%) and 2200 patients annually (27%), SWEDEHEART-CR has developed to a nation-wide registry with 75 centres (100%) and 8800 patients annually (80%) in 2020. Conclusion The SWEDEHEART-CR registry includes a high proportion of the national MI population entering a CR programme and is a powerful tool for quality audit, improvement, and research. The registry provides insights into the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of evidence-based secondary preventive practice, ultimately leading to better cardiovascular health.
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10.
  • Cederlöf, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy Complications and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Later in Life : A Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2047-9980. ; 11:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between pregnancy complications and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for major confounding.Methods and Results: In a nationwide register‐based cohort study, women with singleton births between 1973 and 2014 were included from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Outcomes of mortality and hospitalizations of CVD were collected from the Cause of Death Register and the National Inpatient Register. The cohort was followed from the date of the first delivery until death or end of follow‐up, whichever occurred first. The pregnancy complications studied were preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and stillbirth. Among the 2 134 239 women (mean age at first pregnancy, 27.0 [SD, 5.1] and mean parity 1.96 [SD, 0.9]), 19.1% (N=407 597) had 1 of the studied pregnancy complications. All pregnancy complications were associated with all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for CVD (ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease) after adjustment for major confounding in a Cox proportional hazard regression model. The adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality was 1.84 (95% CI, 1.38–2.44) for preterm birth and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.81–5.44) for stillbirth.Conclusions: In this large cohort study, pregnancy complications were associated with all‐cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalizations for CVD, also after adjusting for confounding, including overweight, smoking, and comorbidities. The study highlights that less established pregnancy complications such as preterm birth and stillbirth are also associated with cardiovascular mortality and CVD.
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