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Sökning: WFRF:(Lopes Renato D.) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Held, Claes, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical outcomes and management associated with major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with apixaban or warfarin : insights from the ARISTOTLE trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 36:20, s. 1264-1272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim In the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial, apixaban compared with warfarin reduced the risk of stroke, major bleed, and death in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this ancillary study, we evaluated clinical consequences of major bleeds, as well as management and treatment effects of warfarin vs. apixaban.Methods and results Major International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was defined as overt bleeding accompanied by a decrease in haemoglobin (Hb) of ≥2 g/dL or transfusion of ≥2 units of packed red cells, occurring at a critical site or resulting in death. Time to event [death, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (MI)] was evaluated by Cox regression models. The excess risk associated with bleeding was evaluated by separate time-dependent indicators for intracranial (ICH) and non-intracranial haemorrhage. Major bleeding occurred in 848 individuals (4.7%), of whom 126 (14.9%) died within 30 days. Of 176 patients with an ICH, 76 (43.2%) died, and of the 695 patients with major non-ICH, 64 (9.2%) died within 30 days of the bleeding. The risk of death, ischaemic stroke, or MI was increased roughly 12-fold after a major non-ICH bleeding event within 30 days. Corresponding risk of death following an ICH was markedly increased, with HR 121.5 (95% CI 91.3–161.8) as was stroke or MI with HR 21.95 (95% CI 9.88–48.81), respectively. Among patients with major bleeds, 20.8% received vitamin K and/or related medications (fresh frozen plasma, coagulation factors, factor VIIa) to stop bleeding within 3 days, and 37% received blood transfusion. There was no interaction between apixaban and warfarin and major bleeding on the risk of death, stroke, or MI.Conclusion Major bleeding was associated with substantially increased risk of death, ischaemic stroke, or MI, especially following ICH, and this risk was similarly elevated regardless of treatment with apixaban or warfarin. These results underscore the importance of preventing bleeding in anti-coagulated patients.
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2.
  • Armaganijan, Luciana V., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of age on efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome : Insights from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 178, s. 176-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Antithrombotic therapy plays an important role in the treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) but is associated with bleeding risk. Advanced age may modify the relationship between efficacy and safety. Methods Efficacy and safety of vorapaxar (a protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist) was analyzed across ages as a continuous and a categorical variable in the 12,944 patients with NSTE ACS enrolled in the TRACER trial. To evaluate the effect of age, Cox regression models were developed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with the adjustment of other baseline characteristics and randomized treatment for the primary efficacy composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization, and the primary safety composite of moderate or severe Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) bleeding. Results The median age of the population was 64 years (25th, 75th percentiles = 58, 71). Also, 1,791 patients (13.8%) were <= 54 years of age, 4,968 (38.4%) were between 55 and 64 years, 3,979 (30.7%) were between 65 and 74 years, and 2,206 (17.1%) were 75 years or older. Older patients had higher rates of hypertension, renal insufficiency, and previous stroke and worse Killip class. The oldest age group (>= 75 years) had substantially higher 2-year rates of the composite ischemic end point and moderate or severe GUSTO bleeding compared with the youngest age group (<= 54 years). The relationships between treatment assignment (vorapaxar vs placebo) and efficacy outcomes did not vary by age. For the primary efficacy end point, the HRs (95% CIs) comparing vorapaxar and placebo in the 4 age groups were as follows: 1.12 (0.88-1.43), 0.88 (0.76-1.02), 0.89 (0.76-1.04), and 0.88 (0.74-1.06), respectively (P value for interaction = .435). Similar to what was observed for efficacy outcomes, we did not observe any interaction between vorapaxar and age on bleeding outcomes. For the composite of moderate or severe bleeding according to the GUSTO classification, the HRs (95% CIs) comparing vorapaxar and placebo in the 4 age groups were 1.73 (0.89-3.34), 1.39 (1.04-1.86), 1.10 (0.85-1.42), and 1.73 (1.29-2.33), respectively (P value for interaction = .574). Conclusion Older patients had a greater risk for ischemic and bleeding events; however, the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in NSTE ACS were not significantly influenced by age.
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3.
  • Durheim, Michael T., et al. (författare)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atrial fibrillation : Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 202, s. 589-594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Comorbid chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with poor outcomes among patients with cardiovascular disease. The risks of stroke and mortality associated with COPD among patients with atrial fibrillation are not well understood. Methods: We analyzed patients from ARISTOTLE, a randomized trial of 18,201 patients with atrial fibrillation comparing the effects of apixaban versus warfarin on the risk of stroke or systemic embolism. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the associations between comorbid COPD and risk of stroke or systemic embolism and of mortality, adjusting for treatment allocation, smoking history and other risk factors. Results: COPD was present in 1950 (10.8%) of 18,134 patients with data on pulmonary disease history. After multivariable adjustment, COPD was not associated with risk of stroke or systemic embolism (adjusted HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.60, 1.21], p = 0.356). However, COPD was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.60 [95% CI 1.36, 1.88], p < 0.001) and both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. The benefit of apixaban over warfarin on stroke or systemic embolism was consistent among patients with and without COPD (HR 0.92 [95% CI 0.52, 1.63] versus 0.78 [95% CI 0.65, 0.95], interaction p = 0.617). Conclusions: COPD was independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality among patients with atrial fibrillation, but was not associated with risk of stroke or systemic embolism. The effect of apixaban on stroke or systemic embolism in COPD patients was consistent with its effect in the overall trial population.
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4.
  • Guimaraes, Patricia O., et al. (författare)
  • Anticoagulation therapy and clinical outcomes in patients with recently diagnosed atrial fibrillation : Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 227, s. 443-449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Evidence supporting use of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) is based mainly on data from patients with permanent, persistent, or paroxysmal AF. Less is known about the risk following a new diagnosis of AF and the efficacy and safety of apixaban in these patients. Methods: Using data from ARISTOTLE, we assessed the relationship between timing of AF diagnosis and clinical outcomes and the efficacy and safety of apixaban versus warfarin in these patients. Recently diagnosed AF was defined as a new diagnosis of AF within 30 days prior to enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between recently diagnosed AF and clinical outcomes. We also assessed the efficacy and safety of apixaban versus warfarin according to time since AF diagnosis. Results: In ARISTOTLE, 1899 (10.5%) patients had recently diagnosed AF. After adjustment, patients with recently versus remotely diagnosed Al' had a similar risk of stroke/systemic embolism (HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.80-1.42; p 0.67), but higher mortality was seen in patients with recently diagnosed AF (adjusted HR = 1.21, 95% Cl 1.02-1.43; p 0.03). The beneficial effects of apixaban, compared with warfarin, on clinical outcomes were consistent, irrespective of timing of AI' diagnosis (all interaction p-values >0.12). Conclusion: Patients with recently diagnosed AF had a similar risk of stroke but higher mortality than patients with remotely diagnosed AF, suggesting that they are not at "low risk" and warrant stroke prevention strategies. The benefits of apixaban over warfarin were preserved, irrespective of timing of AF diagnosis.
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5.
  • Guimarães, Patrícia O, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical features and outcomes of patients with type 2 myocardial infarction : Insights from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 196, s. 28-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by an imbalance between myocardial blood supply and demand, leading to myocardial ischemia without coronary plaque rupture, but its diagnosis is challenging.METHODS: In the TRACER trial, patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes were included. We aimed to describe provoking factors, cardiac biomarker profiles, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes of patients with type 2 MIs. MI events during trial follow-up were adjudicated by an independent clinical events classification committee (CEC) and were classified according to the Third Universal Definition of MI. Using available source documents retrieved as part of the CEC process, we performed a retrospective chart abstraction to collect details on the type 2 MIs. Cox regression models were used to explore the association between MI type (type 1 or type 2) and cardiovascular death.RESULTS: Overall, 10.3% (n=1327) of TRACER participants had a total of 1579 adjudicated MIs during a median follow-up of 502 days (25th and 75th percentiles [IQR] 349-667). Of all MIs, 5.2% (n=82) were CEC-adjudicated type 2 MIs, occurring in 76 patients. The incidence of type 2 MI was higher in the first month following randomization, after which the distribution became more scattered. The most frequent potential provoking factors for type 2 MIs were tachyarrhythmias (38.2%), anemia/bleeding (21.1%), hypotension/shock (14.5%), and hypertensive emergencies (11.8%). Overall, 36.3% had a troponin increase >10× the upper limit of normal. Coronary angiography was performed in 22.4% (n=17) of patients during hospitalizations due to type 2 MIs. The hazard of cardiovascular death was numerically higher following type 2 MI (vs. no MI, adj. HR 11.82, 95% CI 5.71-24.46; P<.0001) than that of type 1 MI (vs. no MI, adj. HR 8.90, 95% CI 6.93-11.43; P<.0001).CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 MIs were more prevalent in the first month after ACS, were characterized by the presence of triggers and infrequent use of an invasive strategy, and were associated with a high risk of death. Further efforts are needed to better define the role and implications of type 2 MI in both clinical practice and research.
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6.
  • Guimaraes, Patricia O., et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and safety of apixaban vs warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and prior bioprosthetic valve replacement or valve repair : Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cardiology. - 0160-9289 .- 1932-8737. ; 42:5, s. 568-571
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The optimal anticoagulation strategy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and bioprosthetic valve (BPV) replacement or native valve repair remains uncertain.HypothesisWe evaluated the safety and efficacy of apixaban vs warfarin in patients with AF and a history of BPV replacement or native valve repair.MethodsUsing data from Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) (n = 18 201), a randomized trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with AF, we analyzed the subgroup of patients (n = 251) with prior valve surgery. We contacted sites by telephone to obtain additional data about prior valve surgery. Full data were available for 156 patients. The primary efficacy endpoint was stroke/systemic embolism. The primary safety endpoint was major bleeding. Treatment groups were compared using a Cox regression model.ResultsIn ARISTOTLE, 104 (0.6%) patients had a history of BPV replacement (n = 73 [aortic], n = 26 [mitral], n = 5 [mitral and aortic]) and 52 (0.3%) had a history of valve repair (n = 50 [mitral], n = 2 [aortic]). Among patients with BPVs, 55 were randomized to apixaban and 49 to warfarin. Among those with a history of native valve repair, 32 were randomized to apixaban and 20 to warfarin. Overall clinical event rates were low, with no significant differences between apixaban and warfarin for any outcomes.ConclusionsIn patients with AF and a history of BPV replacement or repair, the safety and efficacy of apixaban compared with warfarin was consistent with results from ARISTOTLE. These data suggest that apixaban may be reasonable for patients with BPVs or prior valve repair, though future larger randomized trials are needed.ClinicalTrials.govNCT00412984.
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7.
  • Guimaraes, Patricia Oliveira, et al. (författare)
  • Sex Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Psychosocial Factors, and Outcomes Among Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease : Insights from the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 6:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Greater understanding of differences between men and women with coronary heart disease is needed. Methods and Results-In this post hoc analysis of the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) trial, we described psychosocial factors, treatments, and outcomes of men versus women with stable coronary heart disease and explored the association of sex with psychosocial characteristics and cardiovascular risk. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between sex and outcomes. Interactions among sex, psychosocial factors, and the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke were tested. Of 15 828 patients, 2967 (19%) were women. Among women, 21.2% felt often or always stressed at home (versus 9.8% of men), and 19.2% felt often or always sad or depressed (versus 10.1% of men; all P<0.0001). The median duration of follow-up was 3.7 years (25th-75th percentiles: 3.5-3.8 years). Use of evidence-based medications for coronary heart disease at baseline and 24 months was similar between sexes, as were event rates for all outcomes analyzed. In the multivariable model including psychosocial measures, female sex was associated with lower cardiovascular risk. There was a statistically significant interaction (P=0.03) such that the lower risk in women varied by depressive symptom frequency, whereby women who were more depressed had a risk similar to men. Conclusions-Female sex was independently associated with better long-term clinical outcomes, although this was modified by frequency of depressive symptoms. This suggests that emotional state may be an important target for improving outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, specifically in women.
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8.
  • Held, Claes, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of cardiovascular clinical events and impact of event adjudication on the treatment effect of darapladib versus placebo in patients with stable coronary heart disease : Insights from the STABILITY trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 208, s. 65-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Clinical Endpoint Classification (CEC) in clinical trials allows FOR standardized, systematic, blinded, and unbiased adjudication of investigator-reported events. We quantified the agreement rates in the STABILITY trial on 15,828 patients with stable coronary heart disease.METHODS: Investigators were instructed to report all potential events. Each reported event was reviewed independently by 2 reviewers according to prespecified processes and prespecified end point definitions. Concordance between reported and adjudicated cardiovascular (CV) events was evaluated, as well as event classification influence on final study results.RESULTS: In total, CEC reviewed 7,096 events: 1,064 deaths (696 CV deaths), 958 myocardial infarctions (MI), 433 strokes, 182 transient ischemic attacks, 2,052 coronary revascularizations, 1,407 hospitalizations for unstable angina, and 967 hospitalizations for heart failure. In total, 71.8% events were confirmed by CEC. Concordance was high (>80%) for cause of death and nonfatal MI and lower for hospitalization for unstable angina (25%) and heart failure (50%). For the primary outcome (composite of CV death, MI, and stroke), investigators reported 2,086 events with 82.5% confirmed by CEC. The STABILITY trial treatment effect of darapladib versus placebo on the primary outcome was consistent using investigator-reported events (hazard ratio 0.96 [95% CI 0.87-1.06]) or adjudicated events (hazard ratio 0.94 [95% CI 0.85-1.03]).CONCLUSIONS: The primary outcome results of the STABILITY trial were consistent whether using investigator-reported or CEC-adjudicated events. The proportion of investigator-reported events confirmed by CEC varied by type of event. These results should help improve event identification in clinical trials to optimize ascertainment and adjudication.
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9.
  • Hess, Connie N., et al. (författare)
  • Differential occurrence, profile, and impact of first recurrent cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 187, s. 194-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trials typically use a composite primary outcome (myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, or cardiovascular death), but differential patient characteristics, timing, and consequences associated with individual component end points as first events have not been well studied. We compared patient characteristics and prognostic significance associated with first cardiovascular events in the post-ACS setting for initially stabilized patients. Methods We combined patient-level data from 4 trials of post-ACS antithrombotic therapies (PLATO, APPRAISE-2, TRACER, and TRILOGY ACS) to characterize the timing of and characteristics associated with first cardiovascular events (MI, stroke, or cardiovascular death). Landmark analysis at 7 days after index ACS presentation was used to focus on spontaneous, postdischarge events that were not confounded by in-hospital procedural complications. Using a competing risk framework, we tested for differential associations between prespecified covariates and the occurrence of nonfatal stroke vs MI as the first event, and we examined subsequent events after the first nonfatal event. Results Among 46,694 patients with a median follow-up of 358 (25th, 75th percentiles 262, 486) days, a first ischemic event occurred in 4,307 patients (9.2%) as follows: MI in 5.8% (n = 2,690), stroke in 1.0% (n = 477), and cardiovascular death in 2.4% (n = 1,140). Older age, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, prior atrial fibrillation, and higher diastolic blood pressure were associated with a significantly greater risk of stroke vs MI, whereas prior percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with a greater risk of MI vs stroke. Second events occurred in 32% of those with a first nonfatal stroke at a median of 13 (3, 59) days after the first event and in 32% of those with a first nonfatal MI at a median of 35 (5, 137) days after the first event. The most common second event was a recurrent MI among those with MI as the first event and cardiovascular death among those with stroke as the first event. Conclusions Approximately 9% of patients experienced a first cardiovascular event in the post-ACS setting during a median follow-up of 1 year. Although the profile and prognostic implications of stroke vs MI as the first nonfatal event differ substantially, approximately one-third of these patients experienced a second event, typically soon after the first event. These findings have implications for improving post-ACS care and influencing the design of future cardiovascular trials.
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10.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • A biomarker-based risk score to predict death in patients with atrial fibrillation : the ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history) death risk score
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 39:6, s. 477-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: In atrial fibrillation (AF), mortality remains high despite effective anticoagulation. A model predicting the risk of death in these patients is currently not available. We developed and validated a risk score for death in anticoagulated patients with AF including both clinical information and biomarkers.Methods and results: The new risk score was developed and internally validated in 14 611 patients with AF randomized to apixaban vs. warfarin for a median of 1.9 years. External validation was performed in 8548 patients with AF randomized to dabigatran vs. warfarin for 2.0 years. Biomarker samples were obtained at study entry. Variables significantly contributing to the prediction of all-cause mortality were assessed by Cox-regression. Each variable obtained a weight proportional to the model coefficients. There were 1047 all-cause deaths in the derivation and 594 in the validation cohort. The most important predictors of death were N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin-T, growth differentiation factor-15, age, and heart failure, and these were included in the ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history)-death risk score. The score was well-calibrated and yielded higher c-indices than a model based on all clinical variables in both the derivation (0.74 vs. 0.68) and validation cohorts (0.74 vs. 0.67). The reduction in mortality with apixaban was most pronounced in patients with a high ABC-death score.Conclusion: A new biomarker-based score for predicting risk of death in anticoagulated AF patients was developed, internally and externally validated, and well-calibrated in two large cohorts. The ABC-death risk score performed well and may contribute to overall risk assessment in AF.
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