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Sökning: WFRF:(Mannervik Bengt) > (2020-2022)

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1.
  • Ismail, Aram, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of Dog Glutathione Transferase P1-1, an Enzyme Relevant to Veterinary Medicine
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences. - 1661-6596 .- 1422-0067. ; 22:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a family of detoxication enzymes instrumental in the inactivation and elimination of electrophilic mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. The Pi class GST P1-1 is present in most tissues and is commonly overexpressed in neoplastic cells. GST P1-1 in the dog, Canis lupus familiaris, has merits as a marker for tumors and as a target for enzyme-activated prodrugs. We produced the canine enzyme CluGST P1-1 by heterologous bacterial expression and verified its cross-reactivity with antihuman-GST P1-1 antibodies. The catalytic activity with alternative substrates of biological significance was determined, and the most active substrate found was benzyl isothiocyanate. Among established GST inhibitors, Cibacron Blue showed positive cooperativity with an IC50 value of 43 nM. Dog GST P1-1 catalyzes activation of the prodrug Telcyta, but the activity is significantly lower than that of the human homolog.
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2.
  • Ismail, Aram, et al. (författare)
  • Marmoset glutathione transferases with ketosteroid isomerase activity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. - 2405-5808. ; 27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The common marmoset Callithrix jacchus encodes two glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes with ketosteroid double-bond isomerase activity. The most active enzyme is CjaGST A3-3 showing a specific activity with 5-androsten-3,17-dione (Delta(5)-AD) of 62.1 +/- 1.8 mu mol min(-1) mg(-1), and a k(cat) value of 261 +/- 49 s(-1). The second ketostemid isomerase CjaGST A1-1 has a 30-fold lower specific activity with Delta(5)-AD and a 37-fold lower k(cat) value. Thus, the marmoset CjaGST A3-3 would be the main contributor to the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones testosterone and progesterone, like the human ortholog HsaGST A3-3. Two residues differ in the H-site of the 91.4% sequence identical CjaGST A1-1 and CjaGST A3-3, and modeling of the structures suggests that the bulky phenyl ring of Phe111 in CjaGST A1-1 causes steric hindrance in the binding of the steroid substrate. Tributyltin acetate (IC50 =0.16 +/- 0.004 mu M) and ethacrynic acid (IC50 =3.3 +/- 0.2 mu M) were found to be potent inhibitors of CjaGST A3-3, as previously demonstrated with the human and equine orthologs.
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3.
  • Lindström, Helena, 1961- (författare)
  • Exploring the steroidogenic activity of glutathione transferases across species
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Glutathione transferases (GSTs) comprise a superfamily of enzymes prominently involved in detoxication. However, some GSTs have developed alternative functions. Thus, a member of the Alpha class GSTs in tissues of Homo sapiens (humans), Sus scrofa (pigs) and ruminants is involved in biosynthesis of steroid hormones, catalyzing a double-bond isomerization reaction as the last step of synthesis of Δ4-pregnene-3,20-dione (progesterone) and the obligatory step in the synthesis of the last precursor of testosterone, Δ4-androstenene-3,17-dione. Steroids regulate several vital aspects of life such as for example glucose homeostasis, inflammation, immunosuppression, blood pressure, reproduction and pregnancy.The human GST A3-3 was the most efficient steroid double-bond isomerase known so far in mammals. Our work extends discoveries of GSTs that act in the steroidogenic pathways in large mammals to Equus ferus caballus (horse). The kinetic profile of EcaGST A3-3 reveals a catalytic efficiency higher than that of the human enzyme making EcaGST A3-3 the most efficient steroid double-bond isomerase known today in mammals.In contrast to the rodents, Equus ferus caballus shares the steroidogenic pathway with Homo sapiens, which makes it a more suitable model for human steroidogenesis than the murine one. Inhibition of EcaGST A3-3 might help treat endocrine disorders. We screened a library of 1040 FDA-approved compounds for novel inhibitors of EcaGST A3-3 and made a further characterization of the most potent inhibitors.To extend the search for steroidogenic GSTs to other mammals, we probed the degree of GST A3-3 amino acid sequence conservation in Homo sapiens, Equus ferus caballus, Canis lupus familiaris (dog), Capra hircus (goat) and Monodelphis domestica (gray short-tailed opossum). We generated expression vectors containing homologous DNA from these species to facilitate further evaluation of the activity of these GSTs in mammals.We continued to expand the research to insects by investigating the steroidogenic activity of GSTE14 in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), where this enzyme has been shown to be implicated in molting.Our work has provided insights into the role of GSTs in steroidogenesis in mammals and insects, further accentuating the functional versatility of GSTs. We have provided an initial step for the development of potential treatments of steroidogenic disorders as well as tools for further investigation of activity of these GSTs in mammals.
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4.
  • Mannervik, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Glutathione Transferases as Efficient Ketosteroid Isomerases
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. - 2296-889X. ; 8
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to their well-established role in detoxication, glutathione transferases (GSTs) have other biological functions. We are focusing on the ketosteroid isomerase activity, which appears to contribute to steroid hormone biosynthesis in mammalian tissues. A highly efficient GST A3-3 is present in some, but not all, mammals. The alpha class enzyme GST A3-3 in humans and the horse shows the highest catalytic efficiency with kcat/Km values of approximately 107 M−1s−1, ranking close to the most active enzymes known. The expression of GST A3-3 in steroidogenic tissues suggests that the enzyme has evolved to support the activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the formation of 5-androsten-3,17-dione and 5-pregnen-3,20-dione that are substrates for the double-bond isomerization catalyzed by GST A3-3. The dehydrogenase also catalyzes the isomerization, but its kcat of approximately 1 s−1 is 200-fold lower than the kcat values of human and equine GST A3-3. Inhibition of GST A3-3 in progesterone-producing human cells suppress the formation of the hormone. Glutathione serves as a coenzyme contributing a thiolate as a base in the isomerase mechanism, which also involves the active-site Tyr9 and Arg15. These conserved residues are necessary but not sufficient for the ketosteroid isomerase activity. A proper assortment of H-site residues is crucial to efficient catalysis by forming the cavity binding the hydrophobic substrate. It remains to elucidate why some mammals, such as rats and mice, lack GSTs with the prominent ketosteroid isomerase activity found in certain other species. Remarkably, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, expresses a GSTE14 with notable steroid isomerase activity, even though Ser14 has evolved as the active-site residue corresponding to Tyr9 in the mammalian alpha class.
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5.
  • Schwartz, Mathieu, et al. (författare)
  • Interactions Between Odorants and Glutathione Transferases in the Human Olfactory Cleft
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Chemical Senses. - 0379-864X .- 1464-3553. ; 45:8, s. 645-654
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and other proteins, including odorant-binding proteins located in the nasal epithelium and mucus, participate in a series of processes modulating the concentration of odorants in the environment of olfactory receptors (ORs) and finely impact odor perception. These enzymes and transporters are thought to participate in odorant degradation or transport. Odorant biotransformation results in 1) changes in the odorant quantity up to their clearance and the termination of signaling and 2) the formation of new odorant stimuli (metabolites). Enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 and glutathione transferases (GSTs), have been proposed to participate in odorant clearance in insects and mammals as odorant metabolizing enzymes. This study aims to explore the function of GSTs in human olfaction. Using immunohistochemical methods, GSTs were found to be localized in human tissues surrounding the olfactory epithelium. Then, the activity of 2 members of the GST family toward odorants was measured using heterologously expressed enzymes. The interactions/reactions with odorants were further characterized using a combination of enzymatic techniques. Furthermore, the structure of the complex between human GSTA1 and the glutathione conjugate of an odorant was determined by X-ray crystallography. Our results strongly suggest the role of human GSTs in the modulation of odorant availability to ORs in the peripheral olfactory process.
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6.
  • Segura-Aguilar, Juan, et al. (författare)
  • Astrocytes protect dopaminergic neurons against aminochrome neurotoxicity
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Neural Regeneration Research. - 1673-5374 .- 1876-7958. ; 17:9, s. 1861-1866
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Astrocytes protect neurons by modulating neuronal function and survival. Astrocytes support neurons in several ways. They provide energy through the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle, protect neurons from excitotoxicity, and internalize neuronal lipid droplets to degrade fatty acids for neuronal metabolic and synaptic support, as well as by their high capacity for glutamate uptake and the conversion of glutamate to glutamine. A recent reported astrocyte system for protection of dopamine neurons against the neurotoxic products of dopamine, such as aminochrome and other o-quinones, were generated under neuromelanin synthesis by oxidizing dopamine catechol structure. Astrocytes secrete glutathione transferase M2-2 through exosomes that transport this enzyme into dopaminergic neurons to protect these neurons against aminochrome neurotoxicity. The role of this new astrocyte protective mechanism in Parkinson´s disease is discussed.
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7.
  • Segura-Aguilar, Juan, et al. (författare)
  • Neuroprotection against Aminochrome Neurotoxicity : Glutathione Transferase M2-2 and DT-Diaphorase
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Antioxidants. - 2076-3921. ; 11:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glutathione is an important antioxidant that plays a crucial role in the cellular protection against oxidative stress and detoxification of electrophilic mutagens, and carcinogens. Glutathione transferases are enzymes catalyzing glutathione-dependent reactions that lead to inactivation and conjugation of toxic compounds, processes followed by subsequent excretion of the detoxified products. Degeneration and loss of neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal neurons generally involves oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, alpha-synuclein aggregation to neurotoxic oligomers, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein degradation dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, it is still unclear what triggers these neurodegenerative processes. It has been reported that aminochrome may elicit all of these mechanisms and, interestingly, aminochrome is formed inside neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons during neuromelanin synthesis. Aminochrome is a neurotoxic ortho-quinone formed in neuromelanin synthesis. However, it seems paradoxical that the neurotoxin aminochrome is generated during neuromelanin synthesis, even though healthy seniors have these neurons intact when they die. The explanation of this paradox is the existence of protective tools against aminochrome neurotoxicity composed of the enzymes DT-diaphorase, expressed in these neurons, and glutathione transferase M2-2, expressed in astrocytes. Recently, it has been reported that dopaminergic neurons can be protected by glutathione transferase M2-2 from astrocytes, which secrete exosomes containing the protective enzyme.
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8.
  • Shokeer, Abeer, et al. (författare)
  • Mutational Analysis of the Binding of Alternative Substrates and Inhibitors to the Active Site of Human Glutathione Transferase P1-1
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Processes. - 2227-9717. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that play a critical role in cellular detoxication by catalyzing the nucleophilic attack of glutathione on the electrophilic center of a number of xenobiotic compounds, including many therapeutic drugs. Mutations of amino acid residues in the glutathione-binding site of human glutathione transferase P1–1, namely W39C, K45A, Q52A, Q52K, and Q52E, have been engineered. The recombinant mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, but only mutants K45A, Q52A, and Q52K showed measurable activity. Steady-state kinetics comparing glutathione with the alternative thiol substrate γ-glutamylcysteine demonstrated the importance of the glycine residue in glutathione for high catalytic efficiency. Inhibition experiments with a set of glutathione analogs structurally related to the therapeutic drugs Telintra and Telcyta enabled determination of binding energies that were contributed by different substituents. The effects of substituting amino acid side chains in the glutathione-binding site of the enzyme on binding the glutathione derivatives and catalysis were evaluated.
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9.
  • Sjödin, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Role of human glutathione transferases in biotransformation of the nitric oxide prodrug JS-K
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nitric oxide (NO) plays a prominent physiological role as a low-molecular-mass signal molecule involved in diverse biological functions. Great attention has been directed to pharmacologically modulating the release of NO for various therapeutic applications. We have focused on O-2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K) as an example of diazeniumdiolate prodrugs with potential for cancer chemotherapy. JS-K is reportedly activated by glutathione conjugation by glutathione transferase (GST), but the scope of activities among the numerous members of the GSTome is unknown. We demonstrate that all human GSTs tested except GST T1-1 are active with JS-K as a substrate, but their specific activities are notably spanning a > 100-fold range. The most effective enzyme was the mu class member GST M2-2 with a specific activity of 273 +/- 5 mu mol min(-1) mg(-1) and the kinetic parameters Km 63 mu M, k(cat) 353 s(-1), k(cat)/Km 6 x 10(6) M-1 s(-1). The abundance of the GSTs as an ensemble and their high catalytic efficiency indicate that release of NO occurs rapidly in normal tissues such that this influence must be considered in clarification of the tumor-killing effect of JS-K.
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10.
  • Škerlová, Jana, et al. (författare)
  • Structural and functional analysis of the inhibition of equine glutathione transferase A3-3 by organotin endocrine disrupting pollutants
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental Pollution. - : Elsevier. - 0269-7491 .- 1873-6424. ; 268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organotin compounds are highly toxic environmental pollutants with neurotoxic and endocrinedisrupting effects. They are potent inhibitors of glutathione transferases (GSTs), thus impeding their detoxication and antioxidant functions. Several GSTs, including equine GST A3-3 (EcaGST A3-3), exhibit steroid double-bond isomerase activity and are involved in the biosynthesis of testosterone and progesterone. We have performed enzyme kinetics analyses of the inhibition of EcaGST A3-3 by organotin compounds. We have also solved crystal structures of EcaGST A3-3 in complexes with glutathione, and with glutathione together with covalently bound triethyltin. Our structural data indicate that the tin atom forms strong bonds with a covalent character not only with the glutathione, but also with a tyrosyl residue of the enzyme itself, thereby preventing the release of the glutathione-organotin adduct and completely blocking the enzyme function. This work presents a structural basis for the general mechanism of GST inhibition by organotin compounds and contributes to the understanding of their neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects.
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