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Sökning: WFRF:(Marino R. A.) > (2020-2023) > (2023)

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1.
  • Mishra, A, et al. (författare)
  • Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents' growth and development
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 615:7954, s. 874-883
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Optimal growth and development in childhood and adolescence is crucial for lifelong health and well-being1–6. Here we used data from 2,325 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight from 71 million participants, to report the height and body-mass index (BMI) of children and adolescents aged 5–19 years on the basis of rural and urban place of residence in 200 countries and territories from 1990 to 2020. In 1990, children and adolescents residing in cities were taller than their rural counterparts in all but a few high-income countries. By 2020, the urban height advantage became smaller in most countries, and in many high-income western countries it reversed into a small urban-based disadvantage. The exception was for boys in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and in some countries in Oceania, south Asia and the region of central Asia, Middle East and north Africa. In these countries, successive cohorts of boys from rural places either did not gain height or possibly became shorter, and hence fell further behind their urban peers. The difference between the age-standardized mean BMI of children in urban and rural areas was <1.1 kg m–2 in the vast majority of countries. Within this small range, BMI increased slightly more in cities than in rural areas, except in south Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and some countries in central and eastern Europe. Our results show that in much of the world, the growth and developmental advantages of living in cities have diminished in the twenty-first century, whereas in much of sub-Saharan Africa they have amplified.
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  • Nguyen, Thanh N, et al. (författare)
  • Global Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Stroke Volumes and Cerebrovascular Events: A 1-Year Follow-up.
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 100:4, s. e408-e421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Declines in stroke admission, IV thrombolysis (IVT), and mechanical thrombectomy volumes were reported during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a paucity of data on the longer-term effect of the pandemic on stroke volumes over the course of a year and through the second wave of the pandemic. We sought to measure the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes of stroke admissions, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), IVT, and mechanical thrombectomy over a 1-year period at the onset of the pandemic (March 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021) compared with the immediately preceding year (March 1, 2019, to February 29, 2020).We conducted a longitudinal retrospective study across 6 continents, 56 countries, and 275 stroke centers. We collected volume data for COVID-19 admissions and 4 stroke metrics: ischemic stroke admissions, ICH admissions, IVT treatments, and mechanical thrombectomy procedures. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.There were 148,895 stroke admissions in the 1 year immediately before compared with 138,453 admissions during the 1-year pandemic, representing a 7% decline (95% CI [95% CI 7.1-6.9]; p < 0.0001). ICH volumes declined from 29,585 to 28,156 (4.8% [5.1-4.6]; p < 0.0001) and IVT volume from 24,584 to 23,077 (6.1% [6.4-5.8]; p < 0.0001). Larger declines were observed at high-volume compared with low-volume centers (all p < 0.0001). There was no significant change in mechanical thrombectomy volumes (0.7% [0.6-0.9]; p = 0.49). Stroke was diagnosed in 1.3% [1.31-1.38] of 406,792 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was present in 2.9% ([2.82-2.97], 5,656/195,539) of all stroke hospitalizations.There was a global decline and shift to lower-volume centers of stroke admission volumes, ICH volumes, and IVT volumes during the 1st year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the prior year. Mechanical thrombectomy volumes were preserved. These results suggest preservation in the stroke care of higher severity of disease through the first pandemic year.This study is registered under NCT04934020.
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  • Oskarsdottir, Solveig, 1953, et al. (författare)
  • Updated clinical practice recommendations for managing children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Genetics in Medicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 1098-3600 .- 1530-0366. ; 25:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This review aimed to update the clinical practice guidelines for managing children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). The 22q11.2 Society, the international scientific organization studying chromosome 22q11.2 differences and related conditions, recruited expert clinicians worldwide to revise the original 2011 pediatric clinical practice guidelines in a stepwise process: (1) a systematic literature search (1992-2021), (2) study selection and data extraction by clinical experts from 9 different countries, covering 24 subspecialties, and (3) creation of a draft consensus document based on the literature and expert opinion, which was further shaped by survey results from family support organizations regarding perceived needs. Of 2441 22q11.2DS-relevant publications initially identified, 2344 received full-text reviews, including 1545 meeting criteria for potential relevance to clinical care of children and adolescents. Informed by the available literature, recommendations were formulated. Given evidence base limitations, multidisciplinary recommendations represent consensus statements of good practice for this evolving field. These recommendations provide contemporary guidance for evaluation, surveillance, and management of the many 22q11.2DSassociated physical, cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric morbidities while addressing important genetic counseling and psychosocial issues.& COPY; 2022 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • Damasso, M., et al. (författare)
  • Photometric follow-up of the 20 Myr old multi-planet host star V1298 Tau with CHEOPS and ground-based telescopes
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The 20 Myr old star V1298 Tau hosts at least four planets. Since its discovery, this system has been a target of intensive photometric and spectroscopic monitoring. To date, the characterisation of its architecture and planets’ fundamental properties has been very challenging.Aims. The determination of the orbital ephemeris of the outermost planet V1298 Tau e remains an open question. Only two transits have been detected so far by Kepler/K2 and TESS, allowing for a grid of reference periods to be tested with new observations, without excluding the possibility of transit timing variations. Observing a third transit would allow for better constraints to be set on the orbital period and would also help in determining an accurate radius for V1298 Tau e because the previous transits showed different depths.Methods. We observed V1298 Tau with the CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) to search for a third transit of planet e within observing windows selected to test three of the shortest predicted orbital periods. We also collected ground-based observations to verify the result found with CHEOPS. We reanalysed Kepler/K2 and TESS light curves to test how the results derived from these data are affected by alternative photometric extraction and detrending methods.Results. We report the CHEOPS detection of a transit-like signal that could be attributed to V1298 Tau e. If so, that result would imply that the orbital period calculated from fitting a linear ephemeris to the three available transits is close to ~45 days. Results from the ground-based follow-up marginally support this possibility. We found that i) the transit observed by CHEOPS has a longer duration compared to that of the transits observed by Kepler/K2 and TESS; and ii) the transit observed by TESS is >30% deeper than that of Kepler/K2 and CHEOPS, and it is also deeper than the measurement previously reported in the literature, according to our reanalysis.Conclusions. If the new transit detected by CHEOPS is found to be due to V1298 Tau e, this would imply that the planet experiences TTVs of a few hours, as deduced from three transits, as well as orbital precession, which would explain the longer duration of the transit compared to the Kepler/K2 and TESS signals. Another and a priori less likely possibility is that the newly detected transit belongs to a fifth planet with a longer orbital period than that of V1298 Tau e. Planning further photometric follow-up to search for additional transits is indeed necessary to solve the conundrum, as well as to pin down the radius of V1298 Tau e.
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10.
  • Telloni, D., et al. (författare)
  • First polar observations of the fast solar wind with the Metis - Solar Orbiter coronagraph : Role of 2D turbulence energy dissipation in the wind acceleration
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The fast solar wind is known to emanate from polar coronal holes.Aims. This Letter reports the first estimate of the expansion rate of polar coronal flows performed by the Metis coronagraph on board Solar Orbiter.Methods. By exploiting simultaneous measurements in polarized white light and ultraviolet intensity of the neutral hydrogen Lyman-α line, it was possible to extend observations of the outflow velocity of the main component of the solar wind from polar coronal holes out to 5.5 R⊙, the limit of diagnostic applicability and observational capabilities.Results. We complement the results obtained with analogous polar observations performed with the UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory during the previous full solar activity cycle, and find them to be satisfactorily reproduced by a magnetohydrodynamic turbulence model.Conclusions. This suggests that the dissipation of 2D turbulence energy is a viable mechanism for coronal plasma heating and the subsequent acceleration of the fast solar wind.
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