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Sökning: WFRF:(Metspalu Mait) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Behar, Doron M., et al. (författare)
  • The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Macmilan. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 466:7303, s. 238-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A comparison of genomic data from 14 Jewish communities across the world with data from 69 non-Jewish populations reveals a close relationship between most of today's Jews and non-Jewish populations from the Levant. This fits in with the idea that most contemporary Jews are descended from ancient Hebrew and Israelite residents of the Levant. By contrast, the Ethiopian and Indian Jewish communities cluster with neighbouring non-Jewish populations in Ethiopia and western India, respectively. This may be partly because a greater degree of genetic, religious and cultural crossover took place when the Jewish communities in these areas became established.
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2.
  • Lazaridis, Iosif, et al. (författare)
  • Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 513:7518, s. 409-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We sequenced the genomes of a similar to 7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight similar to 8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes(1-4) with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians(3), who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had similar to 44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.
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4.
  • Raghavan, Maanasa, et al. (författare)
  • Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 505:7481, s. 87-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians(1-3), there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to(4-8). Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia(9), to an average depth of 1x. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers(10-12), and the Y chromosome of MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and near the root of most Native American lineages(5). Similarly, we find autosomal evidence that MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and genetically closely related to modern-day Native Americans, with no close affinity to east Asians. This suggests that populations related to contemporary western Eurasians had a more north-easterly distribution 24,000 years ago than commonly thought. Furthermore, we estimate that 14 to 38% of Native American ancestry may originate through gene flow from this ancient population. This is likely to have occurred after the divergence of Native American ancestors from east Asian ancestors, but before the diversification of Native American populations in the New World. Gene flow from the MA-1 lineage into Native American ancestors could explain why several crania from the First Americans have been reported as bearing morphological characteristics that do not resemble those of east Asians(2,13). Sequencing of another south-central Siberian, Afontova Gora-2 dating to approximately 17,000 years ago(14), revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures as MA-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans.
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5.
  • Rasmussen, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 463:7282, s. 757-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from ∼4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20×, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.
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6.
  • Clemente, Florian J, et al. (författare)
  • A Selective Sweep on a Deleterious Mutation in CPT1A in Arctic Populations.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 95:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arctic populations live in an environment characterized by extreme cold and the absence of plant foods for much of the year and are likely to have undergone genetic adaptations to these environmental conditions in the time they have been living there. Genome-wide selection scans based on genotype data from native Siberians have previously highlighted a 3 Mb chromosome 11 region containing 79 protein-coding genes as the strongest candidates for positive selection in Northeast Siberians. However, it was not possible to determine which of the genes might be driving the selection signal. Here, using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data, we identified the most likely causative variant as a nonsynonymous G>A transition (rs80356779; c.1436C>T [p.Pro479Leu] on the reverse strand) in CPT1A, a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Remarkably, the derived allele is associated with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and high infant mortality yet occurs at high frequency in Canadian and Greenland Inuits and was also found at 68% frequency in our Northeast Siberian sample. We provide evidence of one of the strongest selective sweeps reported in humans; this sweep has driven this variant to high frequency in circum-Arctic populations within the last 6-23 ka despite associated deleterious consequences, possibly as a result of the selective advantage it originally provided to either a high-fat diet or a cold environment.
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7.
  • Raghavan, Maanasa, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 345:6200, s. 1020-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (similar to 3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.
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8.
  • Rasmussen, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 506:7487, s. 225-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 C-14 years before present (BP) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years BP)(1,2). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology(3). However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans(2). An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum(4). Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 +/- 35 C-14 years BP (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years BP) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4x and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population(5) into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years BP. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.
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9.
  • Romero, Irene Gallego, et al. (författare)
  • Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 29:1, s. 248-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Milk consumption and lactose digestion after weaning are exclusively human traits made possible by the continued production of the enzyme lactase in adulthood. Multiple independent mutations in a 100-bp region-part of an enhancer-approximately 14-kb upstream of the LCT gene are associated with this trait in Europeans and pastoralists from Saudi Arabia and Africa. However, a single mutation of purported western Eurasian origin accounts for much of observed lactase persistence outside Africa. Given the high levels of present-day milk consumption in India, together with archaeological and genetic evidence for the independent domestication of cattle in the Indus valley roughly 7,000 years ago, we sought to determine whether lactase persistence has evolved independently in the subcontinent. Here, we present the results of the first comprehensive survey of the LCT enhancer region in south Asia. Having genotyped 2,284 DNA samples from across the Indian subcontinent, we find that the previously described west Eurasian -13910 C>T mutation accounts for nearly all the genetic variation we observed in the 400- to 700-bp LCT regulatory region that we sequenced. Geography is a significant predictor of -13910*T allele frequency, and consistent with other genomic loci, its distribution in India follows a general northwest to southeast declining pattern, although frequencies among certain neighboring populations vary substantially. We confirm that the mutation is identical by descent to the European allele and is associated with the same >1 Mb extended haplotype in both populations.
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