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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Mueller Heiko) srt2:(2014)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Mueller Heiko) > (2014)

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1.
  • Allan, Eric, et al. (författare)
  • Interannual variation in land-use intensity enhances grassland multidiversity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 111:1, s. 308-313
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although temporal heterogeneity is a well-accepted driver of biodiversity, effects of interannual variation in land-use intensity (LUI) have not been addressed yet. Additionally, responses to land use can differ greatly among different organisms; therefore, overall effects of land-use on total local biodiversity are hardly known. To test for effects of LUI (quantified as the combined intensity of fertilization, grazing, and mowing) and interannual variation in LUI (SD in LUI across time), we introduce a unique measure of whole-ecosystem biodiversity, multidiversity. This synthesizes individual diversity measures across up to 49 taxonomic groups of plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria from 150 grasslands. Multidiversity declined with increasing LUI among grasslands, particularly for rarer species and aboveground organisms, whereas common species and belowground groups were less sensitive. However, a high level of interannual variation in LUI increased overall multidiversity at low LUI and was even more beneficial for rarer species because it slowed the rate at which the multidiversity of rare species declined with increasing LUI. In more intensively managed grasslands, the diversity of rarer species was, on average, 18% of the maximum diversity across all grasslands when LUI was static over time but increased to 31% of the maximum when LUI changed maximally over time. In addition to decreasing overall LUI, we suggest varying LUI across years as a complementary strategy to promote biodiversity conservation.
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2.
  • Johnson, Nichola, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411. ; 16:3, s. R51-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <= 50 years. Methods: We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a large case control study of 47,346 cases and 47,570 controls from 52 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping of rs10235235 was conducted using a custom Illumina Infinium array. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine whether this association was modified by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, age at menarche or tumor characteristics. Results: We confirmed the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk for women of European ancestry but found no evidence that this association differed with age at diagnosis. Heterozygote and homozygote odds ratios (ORs) were OR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.94, 1.01; P = 0.2) and OR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93; P = 0.004), respectively (P-trend = 0.02). There was no evidence of effect modification by tumor characteristics. rs10235235 was, however, associated with age at menarche in controls (P-trend = 0.005) but not cases (P-trend = 0.97). Consequently the association between rs10235235 and breast cancer risk differed according to age at menarche (P-het = 0.02); the rare allele of rs10235235 was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk for women who had their menarche age >= 15 years (ORhet = 0.84, 95% CI 0.75, 0.94; ORhom = 0.81, 95% CI 0.51, 1.30; P-trend = 0.002) but not for those who had their menarche age <= 11 years (ORhet = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95, 1.19, ORhom = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67, 1.72; P-trend = 0.29). Conclusions: To our knowledge rs10235235 is the first single nucleotide polymorphism to be associated with both breast cancer risk and age at menarche consistent with the well-documented association between later age at menarche and a reduction in breast cancer risk. These associations are likely mediated via an effect on circulating hormone levels.
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3.
  • Thorwarth, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive genotyping and clinical characterisation reveal 27 novel NKX2-1 mutations and expand the phenotypic spectrum
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593. ; 51:6, s. 375-387
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background NKX2-1 encodes a transcription factor with large impact on the development of brain, lung and thyroid. Germline mutations of NKX2-1 can lead to dysfunction and malformations of these organs. Starting from the largest coherent collection of patients with a suspected phenotype to date, we systematically evaluated frequency, quality and spectrum of phenotypic consequences of NKX2-1 mutations. Methods After identifying mutations by Sanger sequencing and array CGH, we comprehensively reanalysed the phenotype of affected patients and their relatives. We employed electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to detect alterations of NKX2-1 DNA binding. Gene expression was monitored by means of in situ hybridisation and compared with the expression level of MBIP, a candidate gene presumably involved in the disorders and closely located in close genomic proximity to NKX2-1. Results Within 101 index patients, we detected 17 point mutations and 10 deletions. Neurological symptoms were the most consistent finding (100%), followed by lung affection (78%) and thyroidal dysfunction (75%). Novel symptoms associated with NKX2-1 mutations comprise abnormal height, bouts of fever and cardiac septum defects. In contrast to previous reports, our data suggest that missense mutations in the homeodomain of NKX2-1 not necessarily modify its DNA binding capacity and that this specific type of mutations may be associated with mild pulmonary phenotypes such as asthma. Two deletions did not include NKX2-1, but MBIP, whose expression spatially and temporarily coincides with NKX2-1 in early murine development. Conclusions The high incidence of NKX2-1 mutations strongly recommends the routine screen for mutations in patients with corresponding symptoms. However, this analysis should not be confined to the exonic sequence alone, but should take advantage of affordable NGS technology to expand the target to adjacent regulatory sequences and the NKX2-1 interactome in order to maximise the yield of this diagnostic effort.
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