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  • Naum, Magdalena, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction: Situating Scandinavian Colonialism
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Colonialism and the Rise of Modernity. Small Time Agents in a Global Arena. - : Springer. - 1574-0439. - 9781461462019 ; , s. 3-16
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
  • Ekström, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - : Wiley. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 65:6, s. 1238-1243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesTo determine whether dementia could explain the association between poor olfactory performance and mortality risk within a decade-long follow-up period.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingBetula Study, Umeå, Sweden.ParticipantsA population-based sample of adult participants without dementia at baseline aged 40 to 90 (N = 1,774).MeasurementsOlfactory performance using the Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) and self-reported olfactory function; several social, cognitive, and medical risk factors at baseline; and incident dementia during the following decade.ResultsWithin the 10-year follow-up, 411 of 1,774 (23.2%) participants had died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and lower mortality was significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74 per point interval, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.77, P < .001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, sex, education, and health-related and cognitive variables (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). The association between SOIT score and mortality was retained after controlling for dementia conversion before death (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). Similar results were obtained for self-reported olfactory dysfunction.ConclusionPoor odor identification and poor self-reported olfactory function are associated with greater likelihood of future mortality. Dementia does not attenuate the association between olfactory loss and mortality, suggesting that olfactory loss might mark deteriorating health, irrespective of dementia.
  • Larsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of Olfactory Function Predicts Mortality Irrespective of Dementia Conversion : 10-year follow-up of an age-varied sample
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Chemical Senses. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0379-864X .- 1464-3553. ; 41:9, s. e111-e288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study was to examine the association between performance in odor identification and future mortality in a community cohort of adults aged between 40 and 90 years. We assessed olfactory performance with a 13-item-version of the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test (SOIT). The results showed that during follow-up (mean=9.4 years, standard deviation=2.23), 411 of 1774 (23.2%) participants died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and mortality was highly significant (hazard ratio [HR]=0.74, per point interval, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.71–0.77, p<0.001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant after controlling for age, sex, education, and health and cognitive variables that were also associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87–0.97, p=0.001). Controlling for dementia conversion prior to death did not attenuate the association between SOIT score and mortality (HR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87–0.97, p=0.001). Similar results were obtained for olfactory sensitivity as assessed by self-report. Overall, the present findings show that poor odor identification performance is associated with an increased likelihood of future mortality in middle-aged and older adults, after controlling for social, cognitive, and medical risk factors. Most importantly, controlling for the development of dementia did not attenuate the association between odor identification and mortality, suggesting that olfactory decline might mark deteriorating health also irrespective of dementia.
  • Olofsson, Jonas K., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є4
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychologia. - : Elsevier. - 0028-3932 .- 1873-3514. ; 85, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memory and olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45-90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10-20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by > 1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator.
  • Abdillahi, Suado M, et al. (författare)
  • The Pulmonary Extracellular Matrix Is a Bactericidal Barrier Against Haemophilus influenzae in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) : Implications for an in vivo Innate Host Defense Function of Collagen VI
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-3224. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative human commensal commonly residing in the nasopharynx of preschool children. It occasionally causes upper respiratory tract infection such as acute otitis media, but can also spread to the lower respiratory tract causing bronchitis and pneumonia. There is increasing recognition that NTHi has an important role in chronic lower respiratory tract inflammation, particularly in persistent infection in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we set out to assess the innate protective effects of collagen VI, a ubiquitous extracellular matrix component, against NTHi infection in vivo. In vitro, collagen VI rapidly kills bacteria through pore formation and membrane rupture, followed by exudation of intracellular content. This effect is mediated by specific binding of the von Willebrand A (VWA) domains of collagen VI to the NTHi surface adhesins protein E (PE) and Haemophilus autotransporter protein (Hap). Similar observations were made in vivo specimens from murine airways and COPD patient biopsies. NTHi bacteria adhered to collagen fibrils in the airway mucosa and were rapidly killed by membrane destabilization. The significance in host-pathogen interplay of one of these molecules, PE, was highlighted by the observation that it confers partial protection from bacterial killing. Bacteria lacking PE were more prone to antimicrobial activity than NTHi expressing PE. Altogether the data shed new light on the carefully orchestrated molecular events of the host-pathogen interplay in COPD and emphasize the importance of the extracellular matrix as a novel branch of innate host defense.
  • Andersson, Linus, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Chemosensory attention, habituation and detection in women and men
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology. - : Elsevier. - 0167-8760 .- 1872-7697. ; 79, s. 316-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences between women and men in how chemosensory stimuli are processed. Event-related potentials from 36 participants (18 men) showed that women had larger P3 amplitudes when attending, but not when ignoring CO 2 but not for n-butanol, compared with men. The main finding was that women and men differ in cognitive measures of chemosensory processing. 
  • Andersson, Linus, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Chemical Senses. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0379-864X .- 1464-3553. ; 43:2, s. 129-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.
  • Bengtsson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Therapists' Experiences of Conducting Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Online vis-à-vis Face-to-Face
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. - Linköping : Informa UK Limited. - 1650-6073 .- 1651-2316. ; 44:6, s. 470-479, s. 18-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study has explored therapists' experiences of conducting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) online and face-to-face. Eleven therapists partook in semi-structured interviews, which were thematically analysed using an abductive approach. The results indicate that the therapists viewed face-to-face therapy as a stronger experience than Internet-based CBT (ICBT), and the latter as being more manualised, but providing more work-time control. Several participants also thought that working alliance may be achieved faster and more easily in face-to-face therapy, and might worsen with fewer modalities of communication. Clinical implications in need of investigation are whether working with ICBT might buffer therapist exhaustion, and whether this therapy form can be improved by becoming less manual dependant in order to be easier to individualise.
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