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Sökning: WFRF:(Pereira Maria J) > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Iurilli, M. L. C., et al. (författare)
  • Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body mass index to change in obesity and underweight NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: eLife. - : ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2050-084X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions.
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  • Fazey, Ioan, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science. - : Elsevier. - 2214-6296 .- 2214-6326. ; 70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
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  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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7.
  • Lytras, T., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Occupational Exposures and Lung-Function Decline in Two Large General-Population Cohorts
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of the American Thoracic Society. - New York : American Thorax Society. - 1546-3222 .- 2329-6933 .- 2325-6621 .- 1943-5665. ; 18:2, s. 238-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Few longitudinal studies have assessed the relationship between occupational exposures and lung-function decline in the general population with a sufficiently long follow-up. Objectives: To examine the potential association in two large cohorts: the ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and the SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults). Methods: General-population samples of individuals aged 18 to 62 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up approximately 10 and 20 years later. Spirometry (without bronchodilation) was performed at each visit. Coded complete job histories during follow-up visits were linked to a job-exposure matrix, generating cumulative exposure estimates for 12 occupational exposures. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were jointly modeled in linear mixed-effects models, fitted in a Bayesian framework, taking into account age and smoking. Results: A total of 40,024 lung-function measurements from 17,833 study participants were analyzed. We found accelerated declines in FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and metals (FEV1 = -15.1 ml, -14.4 ml, and -18.7 ml, respectively; and FEV1/FVC ratio = -0.52%, -0.43%, and -0.36%, respectively; per 25 intensity-years of exposure). These declines were comparable in magnitude with those associated with long-term smoking. No effect modification by sex or smoking status was identified. Findings were similar between the ECRHS and the SAPALDIA cohorts. Conclusions: Our results greatly strengthen the evidence base implicating occupation, independent of smoking, as a risk factor for lung-function decline. This highlights the need to prevent or control these exposures in the workplace.
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  • Beeton, Michael L., et al. (författare)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, 11 countries in Europe and Israel, 2011 to 2016
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Eurosurveillance. - : EUR CENTRE DIS PREVENTION & CONTROL. - 1025-496X .- 1560-7917. ; 25:2, s. 39-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, with large epidemics previously described to occur every 4 to 7 years.Aim: To better understand the diagnostic methods used to detect M. pneumoniae; to better understand M. pneumoniae testing and surveillance in use; to identify epidemics; to determine detection number per age group, age demographics for positive detections, concurrence of epidemics and annual peaks across geographical areas; and to determine the effect of geographical location on the timing of epidemics.Methods: A questionnaire was sent in May 2016 to Mycoplasma experts with national or regional responsibility within the ESCMID Study Group for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia Infections in 17 countries across Europe and Israel, retrospectively requesting details on M. pneumoniae-positive samples from January 2011 to April 2016. The Moving Epidemic Method was used to determine epidemic periods and effect of country latitude across the countries for the five periods under investigation.Results: Representatives from 12 countries provided data on M. pneumoniae infections, accounting for 95,666 positive samples. Two laboratories initiated routine macrolide resistance testing since 2013. Between 2011 and 2016, three epidemics were identified: 2011/12, 2014/15 and 2015/16. The distribution of patient ages for M. pneumoniae-positive samples showed three patterns. During epidemic years, an association between country latitude and calendar week when epidemic periods began was noted.Conclusions: An association between epidemics and latitude was observed. Differences were noted in the age distribution of positive cases and detection methods used and practice. A lack of macrolide resistance monitoring was noted.
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  • Michelet, Mona, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between unmet needs for daytime activities and company and scores on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire in people with dementia : a longitudinal study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Aging & Mental Health. - : Routledge. - 1360-7863 .- 1364-6915.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES To examine prospectively the association between unmet needs for daytime activities and company and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.METHODS We included 451 people with mild or moderate dementia, from eight European countries, who were assessed three times over 12 months. Unmet needs were measured with the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly. Three sub-syndromes of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire were regressed, one-by-one, against unmet needs for daytime activities and company, adjusting for demographic and clinical-functional covariates.RESULTS Unmet needs for daytime activities were associated with more affective symptoms at baseline, six and twelve months, mean 0.74 (p < 0.001), 0.76 (p < 0.001) and 0.78 (p = 0.001) points higher score respectively, and with more psychotic symptoms at baseline (mean 0.39 points, p = 0.007) and at six months follow-up (mean 0.31 points, p = 0.006). Unmet needs for company were associated with more affective symptoms at baseline, six and twelve months, mean 0.44 (p = 0.033), 0.67 (p < 0.001) and 0.91 (p < 0.001) points higher score respectively, and with more psychotic symptoms at baseline (mean 0.40 points, p = 0.005) and at six months (mean 0.35 points, p = 0.002) follow-up.CONCLUSION Interventions to reduce unmet needs for daytime activities and company could reduce affective and psychotic symptoms in people with dementia.
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10.
  • Diamanti, Klev, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Integration of whole-body [18F]FDG PET/MRI with non-targeted metabolomics can provide new insights on tissue-specific insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alteration of various metabolites has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin resistance. However, identifying significant associations between metabolites and tissue-specific phenotypes requires a multi-omics approach. In a cohort of 42 subjects with different levels of glucose tolerance (normal, prediabetes and T2D) matched for age and body mass index, we calculated associations between parameters of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and non-targeted metabolomics profiling for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and plasma. Plasma metabolomics profiling revealed that hepatic fat content was positively associated with tyrosine, and negatively associated with lysoPC(P-16:0). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and SAT insulin sensitivity (Ki), were positively associated with several lysophospholipids, while the opposite applied to branched-chain amino acids. The adipose tissue metabolomics revealed a positive association between non-esterified fatty acids and, VAT and liver Ki. Bile acids and carnitines in adipose tissue were inversely associated with VAT Ki. Furthermore, we detected several metabolites that were significantly higher in T2D than normal/prediabetes. In this study we present novel associations between several metabolites from SAT and plasma with the fat fraction, volume and insulin sensitivity of various tissues throughout the body, demonstrating the benefit of an integrative multi-omics approach.
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