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Sökning: WFRF:(Pereira Maria J) > (2020-2021) > (2020)

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3.
  • Fazey, Ioan, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science. - : Elsevier. - 2214-6296 .- 2214-6326. ; 70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
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4.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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5.
  • Beeton, Michael L., et al. (författare)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, 11 countries in Europe and Israel, 2011 to 2016
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Eurosurveillance. - : EUR CENTRE DIS PREVENTION & CONTROL. - 1025-496X .- 1560-7917. ; 25:2, s. 39-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, with large epidemics previously described to occur every 4 to 7 years.Aim: To better understand the diagnostic methods used to detect M. pneumoniae; to better understand M. pneumoniae testing and surveillance in use; to identify epidemics; to determine detection number per age group, age demographics for positive detections, concurrence of epidemics and annual peaks across geographical areas; and to determine the effect of geographical location on the timing of epidemics.Methods: A questionnaire was sent in May 2016 to Mycoplasma experts with national or regional responsibility within the ESCMID Study Group for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia Infections in 17 countries across Europe and Israel, retrospectively requesting details on M. pneumoniae-positive samples from January 2011 to April 2016. The Moving Epidemic Method was used to determine epidemic periods and effect of country latitude across the countries for the five periods under investigation.Results: Representatives from 12 countries provided data on M. pneumoniae infections, accounting for 95,666 positive samples. Two laboratories initiated routine macrolide resistance testing since 2013. Between 2011 and 2016, three epidemics were identified: 2011/12, 2014/15 and 2015/16. The distribution of patient ages for M. pneumoniae-positive samples showed three patterns. During epidemic years, an association between country latitude and calendar week when epidemic periods began was noted.Conclusions: An association between epidemics and latitude was observed. Differences were noted in the age distribution of positive cases and detection methods used and practice. A lack of macrolide resistance monitoring was noted.
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6.
  • Pereira, Laura M., et al. (författare)
  • Developing multiscale and integrative nature-people scenarios using the Nature Futures Framework
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: People and Nature. - 2575-8314. ; 2:4, s. 1172-1195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Scientists have repeatedly argued that transformative, multiscale global scenarios are needed as tools in the quest to halt the decline of biodiversity and achieve sustainability goals.2. As a first step towards achieving this, the researchers who participated in the scenarios and models expert group of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) entered into an iterative, participatory process that led to the development of the Nature Futures Framework (NFF).3. The NFF is a heuristic tool that captures diverse, positive relationships of humans with nature in the form of a triangle. It can be used both as a boundary object for continuously opening up more plural perspectives in the creation of desirable nature scenarios and as an actionable framework for developing consistent nature scenarios across multiple scales.4. Here we describe the methods employed to develop the NFF and how it fits into a longer term process to create transformative, multiscale scenarios for nature. We argue that the contribution of the NFF is twofold: (a) its ability to hold a plurality of perspectives on what is desirable, which enables the development of joint goals and visions and recognizes the possible convergence and synergies of measures to achieve these visions and (b), its multiscale functionality for elaborating scenarios and models that can inform decision-making at relevant levels, making it applicable across specific places and perspectives on nature.5. If humanity is to achieve its goal of a more sustainable and prosperous future rooted in a flourishing nature, it is critical to open up a space for more plural perspectives of human-nature relationships. As the global community sets out to develop new goals for biodiversity, the NFF can be used as a navigation tool helping to make diverse, desirable futures possible.
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7.
  • Diamanti, Klev, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Integration of whole-body [18F]FDG PET/MRI with non-targeted metabolomics can provide new insights on tissue-specific insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alteration of various metabolites has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin resistance. However, identifying significant associations between metabolites and tissue-specific phenotypes requires a multi-omics approach. In a cohort of 42 subjects with different levels of glucose tolerance (normal, prediabetes and T2D) matched for age and body mass index, we calculated associations between parameters of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and non-targeted metabolomics profiling for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and plasma. Plasma metabolomics profiling revealed that hepatic fat content was positively associated with tyrosine, and negatively associated with lysoPC(P-16:0). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and SAT insulin sensitivity (Ki), were positively associated with several lysophospholipids, while the opposite applied to branched-chain amino acids. The adipose tissue metabolomics revealed a positive association between non-esterified fatty acids and, VAT and liver Ki. Bile acids and carnitines in adipose tissue were inversely associated with VAT Ki. Furthermore, we detected several metabolites that were significantly higher in T2D than normal/prediabetes. In this study we present novel associations between several metabolites from SAT and plasma with the fat fraction, volume and insulin sensitivity of various tissues throughout the body, demonstrating the benefit of an integrative multi-omics approach.
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8.
  • Katsogiannos, Petros, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid changes in neuroendocrine regulation may contribute to reversal of type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Endocrine (Basingstoke). - : SPRINGER. - 1355-008X .- 1559-0100. ; 67:2, s. 344-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To explore the role of hormones and the autonomic nervous system in the rapid remission of diabetes after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB).Research design and methods: Nineteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, 7 M/12 F, were randomized (2:1) to RYGB or standard-of-care medical treatment (control). At baseline and 4 and 24 weeks post surgery, fasting blood sampling, OGTT, intravenous arginine challenge, and heart-rate variability (HRV) assessments were performed.Results: At both 4 and 24 weeks post-RYGB the following effects were found: arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was reduced. GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon rise during OGTT was enhanced. IGF-1 and GH levels increased. In addition, total HRV and spectral components P-LF (power of low frequency) and P-HF (power of high frequency) increased. At 4 weeks, morning cortisol was lower than baseline and 24 weeks. At 24 weeks, NEFA levels during OGTT, and the P-LF/P-HF ratio decreased. None of these changes were seen in the control group.Conclusions: There were rapid changes within 4 weeks after RYGB: signs of enhanced parasympathetic nerve activity, reduced morning cortisol, and enhanced incretin and glucagon responses to glucose. The findings suggest that neurohormonal mechanisms can contribute to the rapid improvement of insulin resistance and glycemia following RYGB in type 2 diabetes.
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9.
  • Hahn, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Topologically selective islet vulnerability and self-sustained downregulation of markers for β-cell maturity in streptozotocin-induced diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mouse models of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes represent the most widely used preclinical diabetes research systems. We applied state of the art optical imaging schemes, spanning from single islet resolution to the whole organ, providing a first longitudinal, 3D-spatial and quantitative account of β-cell mass (BCM) dynamics and islet longevity in STZ-treated mice. We demonstrate that STZ-induced β-cell destruction predominantly affects large islets in the pancreatic core. Further, we show that hyperglycemic STZ-treated mice still harbor a large pool of remaining β-cells but display pancreas-wide downregulation of glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2). Islet gene expression studies confirmed this downregulation and revealed impaired β-cell maturity. Reversing hyperglycemia by islet transplantation partially restored the expression of markers for islet function, but not BCM. Jointly our results indicate that STZ-induced hyperglycemia results from β-cell dysfunction rather than β-cell ablation and that hyperglycemia in itself sustains a negative feedback loop restraining islet function recovery.
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10.
  • Ahmed, Fozia, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of bisphenol A and bisphenol S on adipokine expression and glucose metabolism in human adipose tissue
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Toxicology. - 0300-483X .- 1879-3185. ; 445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeThe environmental endocrine disruptors, bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. We aim to study the effects of BPA or BPS exposure on adipokine expression in human adipose tissue and on adipocyte glucose uptake.MethodsHuman subcutaneous adipose tissue was treated for 24 or 72 h with environmentally-relevant and supraphysiological concentrations of BPA or BPS (1–104 nM). Following exposure, gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and estrogen receptors was measured in adipose tissue. Glucose uptake and the insulin signalling pathway were analyzed in isolated adipocytes following adipose tissue culture with BPA for 24 h.ResultsAdipose tissue treated with BPA for 24 h had reduced expression of the proinflammatory genes (IL6, IL1B, TNFA) and adipokines (ADIPOQ, FABP4). BPA and BPS had no effect on the expression of other proinflammatory genes (IL33), adipokines (LEP), or receptors (ESR1, ESR2) after 72-h exposure. Adipose tissue treated with environmentally-relevant concentrations of BPA for 24 h had reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, without altered gene and protein levels of key insulin signalling pathway markers.ConclusionsWe found that human adipose tissue treated with environmentally-relevant concentrations of BPA for 24 h, but not BPS, reduced expression of proinflammatory genes and adipokines. Furthermore, BPA reduced glucose uptake in adipocytes independently of insulin signalling. Such mechanisms can contribute to the development of insulin resistance associated with BPA exposure.
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