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  • Nguyen, Huong T, et al. (författare)
  • Factors associated with physical growth of children during the first two years of life in rural and urban areas of Vietnam
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - 1471-2431. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background Differences between urban and rural settings can be seen as a very important example of gaps between groups in a population. The aim of this paper is to compare an urban and a rural area regarding child growth during the first two years of life as related to mother’s use of antenatal care (ANC), breastfeeding and reported symptoms of illness. Methods The studies were conducted in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi, Vietnam. Results We found that children in the urban area grow faster than those in the rural area. There were statistical associations between growth and the education of the mother as well as household resources. There were positive correlations between the number of ANC visits and child growth. We also saw a positive association between growth and early initiation (first hour of life) of breastfeeding but the reported duration of exclusive breastfeeding was not statistically significantly related to growth. Reporting symptoms of illness was negatively correlated to growth, i.e. morbidity is hampering growth. Conclusions All predictors of growth discussed in this article, ANC, breastfeeding and illness, are associated with social and economic conditions. To improve and maintain good conditions for child growth it is important to strengthen education of mothers and household resources particularly in the rural areas. Globalization and urbanization means obvious risks for increasing gaps not least between urban and rural areas. Improvement of the quality of programs for antenatal care, breastfeeding and integrated management of childhood illness are also needed in Vietnam.
  • Nguyen, Thi Hong, 1962, et al. (författare)
  • Physical growth during the first year of life. A longitudinal study in rural and urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bmc Pediatrics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2431. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Good infant growth is important for future health. Assessing growth is common in pediatric care all over the world, both at the population and individual level. There are few studies of birth weight and growth studies comparing urban and rural communities in Vietnam. The first aim is to describe and compare the birth weight distributions and physical growth (weight and length) of children during their first year in one rural and one urban area of Hanoi Vietnam. The second aim is to study associations between the anthropometric outcomes and indicators of the economic and educational situations. Methods: Totally 1,466 children, born from 1st March, 2009 to June 2010, were followed monthly from birth to 12 months of age in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites; one rural and one urban. In all, 14,199 measurements each of weight and length were made. Birth weight was recorded separately. Information about demographic conditions, education, occupation and economic conditions of persons and households was obtained from household surveys. Fractional Polynomial models and standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis. Results: Urban infants have higher birth weight and gain weight faster than rural infants. The mean birth weight for urban boys and girls were 3,298 grams and 3,203 grams as compared to 3,105 grams and 3,057 grams for rural children. At 90 days, the urban boys were estimated to be 4.1% heavier than rural boys. This difference increased to 7.2% at 360 days. The corresponding difference for girls was 3.4% and 10.5%. The differences for length were comparatively smaller. Both birth weight and growth were statistically significantly and positively associated with economic conditions and mother education. Conclusion: Birth weight was lower and the growth, weight and length, considerably slower in the rural area, for boys as well as for girls. The results support the hypothesis that the rather drastic differences in maternal education and economic conditions lead to poor nutrition for mothers and children in turn causing inferior birth weight and growth.
  • Niclasen, B., et al. (författare)
  • Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Circumpolar Health. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1239-9736 .- 2242-3982. ; 72, s. 774-780
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level. Objective. To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use. Design. The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home. Results. Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.06) (p<0.001), for reporting physical symptoms 1.34 (95% CI 1.06-1.68) ( p = 0.01) and for medicine use 1.79 (95% CI 1.42-2.26) (p<0.001). Stratification on age groups suggested that children in different age groups experience different health consequences of food insecurity. The oldest children reported food insecurity less often and experienced less negative health effects compared to the younger children. Conclusions. All 3 measures of health were negatively associated to the occurrence of food insecurity in Greenlandic school children aged 11-17. Food security must be seen as a public health issue of concern, and policies should be enforced to prevent food poverty particularly among boys, younger school children and children from low affluence homes.
  • Olsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of Clinical Outcome After Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The American journal of sports medicine. - : SAGE Publications. - 1552-3365 .- 0363-5465. ; 42:6, s. 1448-1455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:In patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture, it has not been possible to determine the superiority of a single specific treatment modality over other treatments with respect to symptoms and function. When several pertinent treatment protocols are available for an injury, it is of interest to understand how other variables, such as age, sex, or physical activity level, affect outcome to better individualize the treatment. PURPOSE:To investigate predictors of both symptomatic and functional outcomes after an acute Achilles tendon rupture. STUDY DESIGN:Cohort study (Prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS:Ninety-three patients (79 men and 14 women; mean age, 40 years) were evaluated prospectively at 3, 6, and 12 months. The main outcome measures in this study were the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) for symptoms and maximum heel-rise height for function. The independent variables evaluated as possible predictors of outcome included treatment, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity level, symptoms, and quality of life. RESULTS:Treatment, age, BMI, physical activity level, heel-rise height at 6 months, and the ATRS at 3 months were eligible for further analysis. Only male sex was included for the prediction models. The 4 different multiple linear regression models (predicting the ATRS at 6 and 12 months and heel-rise height at 6 and 12 months) were significant (P < .001-.002), and the R(2) values for the models were 0.222 to 0.409. Surgical or nonsurgical treatment is a moderate predictor of symptoms and a weak predictor of heel-rise height after an acute Achilles tendon rupture. At the 6-month follow-up, surgical treatment was associated with a larger heel-rise height, but the opposite was seen at 12 months. Surgical treatment resulted in a lower degree of symptoms. Increasing age was a strong predictor of reduced heel-rise height, and an increase in age of 10 years reduced the expected heel-rise height by approximately 8%. A higher BMI was also a strong predictor of a greater degree of symptoms, and a 5-unit higher BMI predicted a reduction of approximately 10 points in the ATRS. CONCLUSION:The present study identified important possible predictors of outcome. Despite having a wide range of clinically relevant variables, the models had a limited ability to predict the final individual outcome. In general, the models appear to be better at predicting function than symptoms.
  • Otwombe, K. N., et al. (författare)
  • A Review of the Study Designs and Statistical Methods Used in the Determination of Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in HIV-Infected Cohorts: 2002-2011
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Research in the predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people has widely been reported in literature. Making an informed decision requires understanding the methods used. Objectives: We present a review on study designs, statistical methods and their appropriateness in original articles reporting on predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people between January 2002 and December 2011. Statistical methods were compared between 2002-2006 and 2007-2011. Time-to-event analysis techniques were considered appropriate. Study Eligibility Criteria: Original English-language articles were abstracted. Letters to the editor, editorials, reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, case reports and any other ineligible articles were excluded. Results: A total of 189 studies were identified (n = 91 in 2002-2006 and n = 98 in 2007-2011) out of which 130 (69%) were prospective and 56 (30%) were retrospective. One hundred and eighty-two (96%) studies described their sample using descriptive statistics while 32 (17%) made comparisons using t-tests. Kaplan-Meier methods for time-to-event analysis were commonly used in the earlier period (n = 69, 76% vs. n = 53, 54%, p = 0.002). Predictors of mortality in the two periods were commonly determined using Cox regression analysis (n = 67, 75% vs. n = 63, 64%, p = 0.12). Only 7 (4%) used advanced survival analysis methods of Cox regression analysis with frailty in which 6 (3%) were used in the later period. Thirty-two (17%) used logistic regression while 8 (4%) used other methods. There were significantly more articles from the first period using appropriate methods compared to the second (n = 80, 88% vs. n = 69, 70%, p-value = 0.003). Conclusion: Descriptive statistics and survival analysis techniques remain the most common methods of analysis in publications on predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected cohorts while prospective research designs are favoured. Sophisticated techniques of time-dependent Cox regression and Cox regression with frailty are scarce. This motivates for more training in the use of advanced time-to-event methods.
  • Otwombe, K. N., et al. (författare)
  • Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1654-9880 .- 1654-9716. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa are widely reported. However rural-urban disparities and their association with all-cause mortality remain unclear. Furthermore, commonly used classical Cox regression ignores unmeasured variables and frailty. Objective: To incorporate frailty in assessing factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa. Design: Using data from a prospective cohort following 6,690 HIV-infected participants from Soweto (urban) and Mpumalanga (rural) enrolled from 2003 to 2010; covariates of mortality were assessed by the integrated nested Laplace approximation method. Results: We enrolled 2,221 (33%) rural and 4,469 (67%) urban participants of whom 1,555 (70%) and 3,480 (78%) were females respectively. Median age (IQR) was 36.4 (31.0-44.1) in rural and 32.7 (28.2-38.1) in the urban participants. The mortality rate per 100 person-years was 11 (9.7-12.5) and 4 (3.6-4.5) in the rural and urban participants, respectively. Compared to those not on HAART, rural participants had a reduced risk of mortality if on HAART for 6-12 (HR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.39) and >12 months (HR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.05-0.18). Relative to those not on HAART, urban participants had a lower risk if on HAART >12 months (HR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.27-0.46). The frailty variance was significant and >1 in rural participants indicating more heterogeneity. Similarly it was significant but <1 in the urban participants indicating less heterogeneity. Conclusion: The frailty model findings suggest an elevated risk of mortality in rural participants relative to the urban participants potentially due to unmeasured variables that could be biological, socio-economic, or healthcare related. Use of robust methods that optimise data and account for unmeasured variables could be helpful in assessing the effect of unknown risk factors thus improving patient management and care in South Africa and elsewhere.
  • Quintero, Juliana, et al. (författare)
  • Ecological, biological and social dimensions of dengue vector breeding in five urban settings of Latin America: a multi-country study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2334. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background Dengue is an increasingly important public health problem in most Latin American countries and more cost-effective ways of reducing dengue vector densities to prevent transmission are in demand by vector control programs. This multi-centre study attempted to identify key factors associated with vector breeding and development as a basis for improving targeted intervention strategies. Methods In each of 5 participant cities in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Uruguay, 20 clusters were randomly selected by grid sampling to incorporate 100 contiguous households, non-residential private buildings (businesses) and public spaces. Standardized household surveys, cluster background surveys and entomological surveys specifically targeted to obtain pupal indices for Aedes aegypti, were conducted in the dry and wet seasons. Results The study clusters included mainly urban low-middle class populations with satisfactory infrastructure and –except for Uruguay- favourable climatic conditions for dengue vector development. Household knowledge about dengue and “dengue mosquitoes” was widespread, mainly through mass media, but there was less awareness around interventions to reduce vector densities. Vector production (measured through pupal indices) was favoured when water containers were outdoor, uncovered, unused (even in Colombia and Ecuador where the large tanks used for household water storage and washing were predominantly productive) and –particularly during the dry season- rainwater filled. Larval infestation did not reflect productive container types. All productive container types, including those important in the dry season, were identified by pupal surveys executed during the rainy season. Conclusions A number of findings are relevant for improving vector control: 1) there is a need for complementing larval surveys with occasional pupal surveys (to be conducted during the wet season) for identifying and subsequently targeting productive container types; 2) the need to raise public awareness about useful and effective interventions in productive container types specific to their area; and 3) the motivation for control services that-according to this and similar studies in Asia- dedicated, targeted vector management can make a difference in terms of reducing vector abundance.
  • Rizzo, Nidia, et al. (författare)
  • Dengue vector management using insecticide treated materials and targeted interventions on productive breeding-sites in Guatemala.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC public health. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2458. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In view of the epidemiological expansion of dengue worldwide and the availability of new tools and strategies particularly for controlling the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti, an intervention study was set up to test the efficacy, cost and feasibility of a combined approach of insecticide treated materials (ITMs) alone and in combination with appropriate targeted interventions of the most productive vector breeding-sites. METHODS: The study was conducted as a cluster randomized community trial using "reduction of the vector population" as the main outcome variable. The trial had two arms: 10 intervention clusters (neighborhoods) and 10 control clusters in the town of Poptun Guatemala. Activities included entomological assessments (characteristics of breeding-sites, pupal productivity, Stegomyia indices) at baseline, 6 weeks after the first intervention (coverage of window and exterior doorways made of PermaNet 2.0 netting, factory treated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2, and of 200 L drums with similar treated material) and 6 weeks after the second intervention (combination of treated materials and other suitable interventions targeting productive breeding-sites i.e larviciding with Temephos, elimination etc.). The second intervention took place 17 months after the first intervention. The insecticide residual activity and the insecticidal content were also studied at different intervals. Additionally, information about demographic characteristics, cost of the intervention, coverage of houses protected and satisfaction in the population with the interventions was collected. RESULTS: At baseline (during the dry season) a variety of productive container types for Aedes pupae were identified: various container types holding >20 L, 200 L drums, washbasins and buckets (producing 83.7% of all pupae). After covering 100% of windows and exterior doorways and a small number of drums (where the commercial cover could be fixed) in 970 study households, tropical rains occurred in the area and lead to an increase of the vector population, more pronounced (but statistically not significant) in the control arm than in the intervention arm. In the second intervention (17 months later and six weeks after implementing the second intervention) the combined approach of ITMs and a combination of appropriate interventions against productive containers (Temephos in >200 L water drums, elimination of small discarded tins and bottles) lead to significant differences on reductions of the total number of pupae (P = 0.04) and the House index (P = 0.01) between intervention and control clusters, and to borderline differences on reductions of the Pupae per Person and Breteau indices (P = 0.05). The insecticide residual activity on treated curtains was high until month 18 but the chemical concentration showed a high variability. The cost per house protected with treated curtains and drum covers and targeting productive breeding-sites of the dengue vector was $ 5.31 USD. The acceptance of the measure was generally high, particularly in families who had experienced dengue. CONCLUSION: Even under difficult environmental conditions (open houses, tropical rainfall, challenging container types mainly in the peridomestic environment) the combination of insecticide treated curtains and to a less extent drum covers and interventions targeting the productive container types can reduce the dengue vector population significantly.
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