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Sökning: WFRF:(Puschmann Andreas) > (2010-2014)

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  • Puschmann, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Olfactory Dysfunction.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Parkinson's Disease and Nonmotor Dysfunction. - : Humana Press. - 9781607614296 - 9781607614289 ; , s. 335-348
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Olfactory dysfunction is well documented as an early nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the olfactory system and summarizes the pathological changes in the olfactory system in PD. We review the occurrence of olfactory dysfunction in parkinsonian syndromes and familial parkinsonism. Different methods to assess olfactory function are presented. Their usefulness in routine clinical situations is limited to special diagnostic situations. However, these methods have provided important insights into the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and can help to identify at-risk groups for future neuroprotective trials. Several lines of evidence now suggest that olfactory disturbance reflects Lewy pathology more closely than it reflects striatonigral dopamine deficiency.
  • Puschmann, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Synucleinopathies from bench to bedside.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1873-5126. ; 18 Suppl 1, s. 24-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accumulation of alpha-synuclein is a pathological feature in several neurological diseases. Its characterization has allowed for a re-grouping of diseases according to the expected pathology. The clinical syndrome of PD can now be classified into forms with and without alpha-synuclein pathology. DLB and PDD are synucleinopathies, and MSA shows alpha-synuclein pathology with glial inclusions. ADHD symptoms commonly occur in persons that will subsequently develop DLB. A similar phenomenon may be the early personality changes and frontotemporal atrophy in patients with SNCA multiplication. RLS is not known to have alpha-synuclein pathology, but as PD and ADHD, involves a hypodopaminergic state. Furthermore, PD and RLS co-occur in families in a way that suggests common inheritance. A proportion of patients with ET have brainstem Lewy body pathology. Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage disorders also have alpha-synuclein pathology. Alpha-synuclein is a naturally unfolded protein. Non-fibrillar oligomeres may be the toxic species, and Lewy body formation may in fact be protective. Inhibiting alpha-synuclein toxicity seems to be an attractive novel treatment strategy and several approaches are being developed. When such treatments become available, clinicians will need to be familiar with the clinical features that distinguish the synucleinopathies from their look-alikes.
  • Ross, Owen A., et al. (författare)
  • Association of LRRK2 exonic variants with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease: a case-control study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Publishing Group. - 1474-4465. ; 10:10, s. 898-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) harbours highly penetrant mutations that are linked to familial parkinsonism. However, the extent of its polymorphic variability in relation to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been assessed systematically. We therefore assessed the frequency of LRRK2 exonic variants in individuals with and without PD, to investigate the role of the variants in PD susceptibility. Methods LRRK2 was genotyped in patients with PD and controls from three series (white, Asian, and Arab-Berber) from sites participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium. Genotyping was done for exonic variants of LRRK2 that were identified through searches of literature and the personal communications of consortium members. Associations with PD were assessed by use of logistic regression models. For variants that had a minor allele frequency of 0.5% or greater, single variant associations were assessed, whereas for rarer variants information was collapsed across variants. Findings 121 exonic LRRK2 variants were assessed in 15 540 individuals: 6995 white patients with PD and 5595 controls, 1376 Asian patients and 962 controls, and 240 Arab-Berber patients and 372 controls. After exclusion of carriers of known pathogenic mutations, new independent risk associations were identified for polymorphic variants in white individuals (M1646T, odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.15-1.78; p=0.0012) and Asian individuals (A419V, 2.27, 1.35-3.83; p=0.0011). A protective haplotype (N551K-R1398H-K1423K) was noted at a frequency greater than 5% in the white and Asian series, with a similar finding in the Arab-Berber series (combined odds ratio 0.82, 0.72-0.94; p=0.0043). Of the two previously reported Asian risk variants, G2385R was associated with disease (1.73, 1.20-2.49; p=0.0026), but no association was noted for R1628P (0.62, 0.36-1.07; p=0.087). In the Arab-Berber series, Y2189C showed potential evidence of risk association with PD (4.48, 133-15.09; p=0.012). Interpretation The results for LRRK2 show that several rare and common genetic variants in the same gene can have independent effects on disease risk. LRRK2, and the pathway in which it functions, is important in the cause and pathogenesis of PD in a greater proportion of patients with this disease than previously believed. These results will help discriminate those patients who will benefit most from therapies targeted at LRRK2 pathogenic activity. Funding Michael J Fox Foundation and National Institutes of Health.
  • Sharma, Manu, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale replication and heterogeneity in Parkinson disease genetic loci
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1526-632X. ; 79:7, s. 67-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Eleven genetic loci have reached genome-wide significance in a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in Parkinson disease (PD) based on populations of Caucasian descent. The extent to which these genetic effects are consistent across different populations is unknown.METHODS: Investigators from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 SNPs were genotyped in 8,750 cases and 8,955 controls. Fixed as well as random effects models were used to provide the summary risk estimates for these variants. We evaluated between-study heterogeneity and heterogeneity between populations of different ancestry.RESULTS: In the overall analysis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 loci showed significant associations with protective per-allele odds ratios of 0.78-0.87 (LAMP3, BST1, and MAPT) and susceptibility per-allele odds ratios of 1.14-1.43 (STK39, GAK, SNCA, LRRK2, SYT11, and HIP1R). For 5 of the 9 replicated SNPs there was nominally significant between-site heterogeneity in the effect sizes (I(2) estimates ranged from 39% to 48%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed significantly stronger effects for the BST1 (rs11724635) in Asian vs Caucasian populations and similar effects for SNCA, LRRK2, LAMP3, HIP1R, and STK39 in Asian and Caucasian populations, while MAPT rs2942168 and SYT11 rs34372695 were monomorphic in the Asian population, highlighting the role of population-specific heterogeneity in PD.CONCLUSION: Our study allows insight to understand the distribution of newly identified genetic factors contributing to PD and shows that large-scale evaluation in diverse populations is important to understand the role of population-specific heterogeneity.
  • Soto-Ortolaza, A. I., et al. (författare)
  • GWAS risk factors in Parkinson's disease: LRRK2 coding variation and genetic interaction with PARK16
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease. - : e-Century Publishing. - 2165-591X. ; 2:4, s. 99-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial movement disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have nominated over fifteen distinct loci associated with risk of PD, however the biological mechanisms by which these loci influence disease risk are mostly unknown. GWAS are only the first step in the identification of disease genes: the specific causal variants responsible for the risk within the associated loci and the interactions between them must be identified to fully comprehend their impact on the development of PD. In the present study, we first attempted to replicate the association signals of 17 PD GWAS loci in our series of 1381 patients with PD and 1328 controls. BST1, SNCA, HLA-DRA, CCDC62/HIP1R and MAPT all showed a significant association with PD under different models of inheritance and LRRK2 showed a suggestive association. We then examined the role of coding LRRK2 variants in the GWAS association signal for that gene. The previously identified LRRK2 risk mutant p.M1646T and protective haplotype p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K did not explain the association signal of LRRK2 in our series. Finally, we investigated the gene-gene interaction between PARK16 and LRRK2 that has previously been proposed. We observed no interaction between PARK16 and LRRK2 GWAS variants, but did observe a non-significant trend toward interaction between PARK16 and LRRK2 variants within the protective haplotype. Identification of causal variants and the interactions between them is the crucial next step in making biological sense of the massive amount of data generated by GWAS studies. Future studies combining larger sample sizes will undoubtedly shed light on the complex molecular interplay leading to the development of PD.
  • Theuns, J., et al. (författare)
  • Global investigation and meta-analysis of the C9orf72 (G4C2)n repeat in Parkinson disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1526-632X .- 0028-3878. ; 83:21, s. 13-1906
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to clarify the role of (G4C2)n expansions in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) in the worldwide multicenter Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) cohort. METHODS: C9orf72 (G4C2)n repeats were assessed in a GEO-PD cohort of 7,494 patients diagnosed with PD and 5,886 neurologically healthy control individuals ascertained in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. RESULTS: A pathogenic (G4C2)n>60 expansion was detected in only 4 patients with PD (4/7,232; 0.055%), all with a positive family history of neurodegenerative dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or atypical parkinsonism, while no carriers were detected with typical sporadic or familial PD. Meta-analysis revealed a small increase in risk of PD with an increasing number of (G4C2)n repeats; however, we could not detect a robust association between the C9orf72 (G4C2)n repeat and PD, and the population attributable risk was low. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings indicate that expansions in C9orf72 do not have a major role in the pathogenesis of PD. Testing for C9orf72 repeat expansions should only be considered in patients with PD who have overt symptoms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or apparent family history of neurodegenerative dementia or motor neuron disease.
  • Travaglini, Lorena, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic spectrum and prevalence of INPP5E mutations in Joubert syndrome and related disorders
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438 .- 1018-4813. ; 21:10, s. 8-1074
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathies sharing a peculiar midbrain-hindbrain malformation known as the 'molar tooth sign'. To date, 19 causative genes have been identified, all coding for proteins of the primary cilium. There is clinical and genetic overlap with other ciliopathies, in particular with Meckel syndrome (MKS), that is allelic to JSRD at nine distinct loci. We previously identified the INPP5E gene as causative of JSRD in seven families linked to the JBTS1 locus, yet the phenotypic spectrum and prevalence of INPP5E mutations in JSRD and MKS remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we performed INPP5E mutation analysis in 483 probands, including 408 JSRD patients representative of all clinical subgroups and 75 MKS fetuses. We identified 12 different mutations in 17 probands from 11 JSRD families, with an overall 2.7% mutation frequency among JSRD. The most common clinical presentation among mutated families (7/11, 64%) was Joubert syndrome with ocular involvement (either progressive retinopathy and/or colobomas), while the remaining cases had pure JS. Kidney, liver and skeletal involvement were not observed. None of the MKS fetuses carried INPP5E mutations, indicating that the two ciliopathies are not allelic at this locus.
  • Vemula, Satya R, et al. (författare)
  • GNAL mutations cause adult-onset primary dystonia
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0028-3878. ; 80:1
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Identification of the causal mutation in an African-American family with adult-onset primary dystonia. BACKGROUND: The vast majority of patients with dystonia are adults with primary focal or segmental anatomical distributions. Familial and sporadic dystonia appear to share the same genetic etiological background. Although approximately 10% of probands have at least one first- or second-degree relative with dystonia, large pedigrees suited for linkage analysis are uncommon. In previous work, we excluded THAP1 and TOR1A mutations in an African-American family with clinical phenotypes that included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. DESIGN/METHODS: Linkage and haplotype analyses were combined with solution-based whole-exome capture and massively parallel sequencing in order to identify the causal mutation (GNAL, c.913G>T) in our African-American family with dystonia. High resolution melting and Sanger sequencing were used to screen 768 additional subjects with primary cervical or segmental dystonia for sequence variants in GNAL. RESULTS: The missense mutation in GNAL (c.913G>T, p.V305F) was found to co-segregate with dystonia in our African-American pedigree. GNAL encodes guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(olf), subunit alpha [Gα(olf)]. Gα(olf) is highly expressed in the olfactory bulb, striatum and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Gα(olf) plays a role in olfaction, coupling D1 and A2a receptors to adenylyl cyclase, and histone H3 phosphorylation. Screening identified two additional pedigrees with GNAL mutations (c.822-823insA [p.R275T∗13] and c.964C>T [p.R322∗]). None of these sequence variants were found in 760 controls. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in GNAL are causally-associated with adult-onset primary cervical and segmental dystonia. The prominent expression of Gα(olf) in striatum and cerebellar Purkinje cells points to potential sites of functional pathology in primary dystonia.
  • Vemula, Satya R, et al. (författare)
  • Role of Gα(olf) in Familial and Sporadic Adult-Onset Primary Dystonia.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 22:12, s. 2510-2519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vast majority of patients with primary dystonia are adults with focal or segmental distribution of involuntary movements. Although approximately 10% of probands have at least one first- or second-degree relative with dystonia, large families suited for linkage analysis are exceptional. After excluding mutations in known primary dystonia genes (TOR1A, THAP1, and CIZ1), whole-exome sequencing identified a GNAL missense mutation (c.682G>T, p.V228F) in an African-American pedigree with clinical phenotypes that include cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Screening of 760 subjects with familial and sporadic primary dystonia identified 3 Caucasian pedigrees with GNAL mutations (c.591dupA [p.R198Tfs*13]; c.733C>T [p.R245*]; and c.3G>A [p.M1?]). These mutations show incomplete penetrance. Our findings corroborate those of a recent study which used whole exome sequencing to identify missense and nonsense GNAL mutations in Caucasian pedigrees of mixed European ancestry with mainly adult-onset cervical and segmental dystonia. GNAL encodes guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(olf), subunit alpha [Gα(olf)]. Gα(olf) plays a role in olfaction, coupling D1 and A2a receptors to adenylyl cyclase, and histone H3 phosphorylation. African-American subjects harboring the p.V228F mutation exhibited microsmia. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from subjects with the p.V228F mutation showed up-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle control and development. Consistent with known sites of network pathology in dystonia, immunohistochemical studies indicated that Gα(olf) is highly expressed in the striatum and cerebellar Purkinje cells, and co-localized with corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors in the latter.
  • Vilarino-Gueell, Carles, et al. (författare)
  • VPS35 Mutations in Parkinson Disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 89:1, s. 162-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The identification of genetic causes for Mendelian disorders has been based on the collection of multi-incident families, linkage analysis, and sequencing of genes in candidate intervals. This study describes the application of next-generation sequencing technologies to a Swiss kindred presenting with autosomal-dominant, late-onset Parkinson disease (PD). The family has tremor-predominant dopa-responsive parkinsonism with a mean onset of 50.6 +/- 7.3 years. Exome analysis suggests that an aspartic-acid-to-asparagine mutation within vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35 c.1858G>A; p.Asp620Asn) is the genetic determinant of disease. VPS35 is a central component of the retromer cargo-recognition complex, is critical for endosome-trans-golgi trafficking and membrane-protein recycling, and is evolutionarily highly conserved. VPS35 c.1858G>A was found in all affected members of the Swiss kindred and in three more families and one patient with sporadic PD, but it was not observed in 3,309 controls. Further sequencing of familial affected probands revealed only one other missense variant, VPS35 c.946C>T; (p.Pro316Ser), in a pedigree with one unaffected and two affected carriers, and thus the pathogenicity of this mutation remains uncertain. Retromer-mediated sorting and transport is best characterized for acid hydrolase receptors. However, the complex has many types of cargo and is involved in a diverse array of biologic pathways from developmental Wnt signaling to lysosome biogenesis. Our study implicates disruption of VPS35 and retromer-mediated trans-membrane protein sorting, rescue, and recycling in the neurodegenerative process leading to PD.
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