1. 
 Adam, R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results IX. Diffuse component separation : CMB maps
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present foregroundreduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperaturetopolarization leakage, analoguetodigital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales l greater than or similar to 40. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still nonnegligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with l < 20 are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by highpass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27 mu K averaged over 55' pixels, and between 4.5 and 6.1 mu K averaged over 3.'4 pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1 sigma level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description of the higherorder statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of crossspectra and crosscorrelations, or stacking analyses. However, the amplitude of primordial nonGaussianity is consistent with zero within 2 sigma for all local, equilateral, and orthogonal configurations of the bispectrum, including for polarization Emodes. Moreover, excellent agreement is found regarding the lensing Bmode power spectrum, both internally among the various component separation codes and with the bestfit Planck 2015 Lambda cold dark matter model.


2. 
 Adam, R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results X. Diffuse component separation : Foreground maps
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of fullsky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, freefree, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Fullsky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7: 5 and 1 degrees. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and bestfit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4pK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, freefree, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external lowfrequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zeropoints. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperaturetopolarization leakage, uncertainties in the analoguetodigital conversion, and corrections for the very long time constant of the bolometer detectors, all of which are expected to improve in the near future.


3. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XXV. Diffuse lowfrequency Galactic foregrounds
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100 GHz based on observations by Planck and WMAP. The total intensity in this part of the spectrum is dominated by freefree and spinning dust emission, whereas the polarized intensity is dominated by synchrotron emission. The Commander componentseparation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with radio recombination line templates verifies the recovery of the freefree emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the highlatitude H alpha emission with our freefree map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (approximate to 30%) of H alpha having been scattered by highlatitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak (in Iv) ranging from below 20 GHz to more than 50 GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent H Pi regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photodissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regions is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the Commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission (AME) than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and freefree emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys, particularly at 520 GHz, will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck and WMAP data to make the highest signaltonoise ratio maps yet of the intensity of the allsky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the highlatitude polarized emission is associated with distinct largescale loops and spurs, and we rediscuss their structure. We argue that nearly all the emission at 40 degrees > l > 90 degrees is part of the Loop I structure, and show that the emission extends much further in to the southern Galactic hemisphere than previously recognised, giving Loop I an ovoid rather than circular outline. However, it does not continue as far as the Fermi bubble/microwave haze, making it less probable that these are part of the same structure. We identify a number of new faint features in the polarized sky, including a dearth of polarized synchrotron emission directly correlated with a narrow, roughly 20 degrees long filament seen in H alpha at high Galactic latitude. Finally, we look for evidence of polarized AME, however many AME regions are significantly contaminated by polarized synchrotron emission, and we find a 2 sigma upper limit of 1.6% in the Perseus region.


4. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XIX. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We compute and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB temperature and polarization spectra, which is related to their contribution to cosmological perturbations; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; the impact of PMFs on the ionization history; magneticallyinduced nonGaussianities and related nonzero bispectra; and the magneticallyinduced breaking of statistical isotropy. We present constraints on the amplitude of PMFs that are derived from different Planck data products, depending on the specific effect that is being analysed. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanoGauss, with different bounds that depend on the considered model. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are B1 (Mpc) < 4.4 nG (where B1 Mpc is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity. By considering the Planck likelihood, based only on parityeven angular power spectra, we obtain B1 (Mpc) < 5.6 nG for a maximally helical field. For nearly scaleinvariant PMFs we obtain B1 (Mpc) < 2.0 nG and B1 (Mpc) < 0.9 nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis. From the analysis of magneticallyinduced nonGaussianity, we obtain three different values, corresponding to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magneticallyinduced passivetensor bispectrum is B1 (Mpc) < 2.8 nG. A search for preferred directions in the magneticallyinduced passive bispectrum yields B1 (Mpc) < 4.5 nG, whereas the compensatedscalar bispectrum gives B1 (Mpc) < 3 nG. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in EE and BB at 70 GHz and gives B1 (Mpc) < 1380 nG. In our final analysis, we consider the harmonicspace correlations produced by Alfven waves, finding no significant evidence for the presence of these waves. Together, these results comprise a comprehensive set of constraints on possible PMFs with Planck data.


5. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a list of discrete objects detected in singlefrequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two subcatalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these (PCCS2) covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The second ( PCCS2E) contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarizationsensitive Planck channels. The improved dataprocessing of the fullmission maps and their reduced noise levels allow us to increase the number of objects in the catalogue, improving its completeness for the target 80% reliability as compared with the previous versions, the PCCS and the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC).


6. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

XXIV. Cosmology from SunyaevZeldovich cluster counts
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present cluster counts and corresponding cosmological constraints from the Planck full mission data set. Our catalogue consists of 439 clusters detected via their SunyaevZeldovich (SZ) signal down to a signaltonoise ratio of 6, and is more than a factor of 2 larger than the 2013 Planck cluster cosmology sample. The counts are consistent with those from 2013 and yield compatible constraints under the same modelling assumptions. Taking advantage of the larger catalogue, we extend our analysis to the twodimensional distribution in redshift and signaltonoise. We use mass estimates from two recent studies of gravitational lensing of background galaxies by Planck clusters to provide priors on the hydrostatic bias parameter, (1  b). In addition, we use lensing of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations by Planck clusters as an independent constraint on this parameter. These various calibrations imply constraints on the presentday amplitude of matter fluctuations in varying degrees of tension with those from the Planck analysis of primary fluctuations in the CMB; for the lowest estimated values of (1 b) the tension is mild, only a little over one standard deviation, while it remains substantial (3.7 sigma) for the largest estimated value. We also examine constraints on extensions to the base flat Lambda CDM model by combining the cluster and CMB constraints. The combination appears to favour nonminimal neutrino masses, but this possibility does little to relieve the overall tension because it simultaneously lowers the implied value of the Hubble parameter, thereby exacerbating the discrepancy with most current astrophysical estimates. Improving the precision of cluster mass calibrations from the current 10%level to 1% would significantly strengthen these combined analyses and provide a stringent test of the base Lambda CDM model.


7. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2point correlation functions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based on the same hybrid approach used for the previous release, i.e., a pixelbased likelihood at low multipoles (l < 30) and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of crosspower spectra at higher multipoles. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization information, along with more detailed models of foregrounds and instrumental uncertainties. The increased redundancy brought by more than doubling the amount of data analysed enables further consistency checks and enhanced immunity to systematic effects. It also improves the constraining power of Planck, in particular with regard to smallscale foreground properties. Progress in the modelling of foreground emission enables the retention of a larger fraction of the sky to determine the properties of the CMB, which also contributes to the enhanced precision of the spectra. Improvements in data processing and instrumental modelling further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish the robustness and accuracy of the likelihood results, from temperature alone, from polarization alone, and from their combination. For temperature, we also perform a full likelihood analysis of realistic endtoend simulations of the instrumental response to the sky, which were fed into the actual data processing pipeline; this does not reveal biases from residual lowlevel instrumental systematics. Even with the increase in precision and robustness, the Lambda CDM cosmological model continues to offer a very good fit to the Planck data. The slope of the primordial scalar fluctuations, n(s), is confirmed smaller than unity at more than 5 sigma from Planck alone. We further validate the robustness of the likelihood results against specific extensions to the baseline cosmology, which are particularly sensitive to data at high multipoles. For instance, the effective number of neutrino species remains compatible with the canonical value of 3.046. For this first detailed analysis of Planck polarization spectra, we concentrate at high multipoles on the E modes, leaving the analysis of the weaker B modes to future work. At low multipoles we use temperature maps at all Planck frequencies along with a subset of polarization data. These data take advantage of Planck's wide frequency coverage to improve the separation of CMB and foreground emission. Within the baseline Lambda CDM cosmology this requires tau = 0.078 +/ 0.019 for the reionization optical depth, which is significantly lower than estimates without the use of highfrequency data for explicit monitoring of dust emission. At high multipoles we detect residual systematic errors in E polarization, typically at the mu K2 level; we therefore choose to retain temperature information alone for high multipoles as the recommended baseline, in particular for testing nonminimal models. Nevertheless, the highmultipole polarization spectra from Planck are already good enough to enable a separate highprecision determination of the parameters of the Lambda CDM model, showing consistency with those established independently from temperature information alone.


8. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG) beyond the standard cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state w(a), as well as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints and find that it has to be below similar to 2% (at 95% confidence) of the critical density, even when forced to play a role for z < 50 only. We then move to general parameterizations of the DE or MG perturbations that encompass both effective field theories and the phenomenology of gravitational potentials in MG models. Lastly, we test a range of specific models, such as kessence, f(R) theories, and coupled DE. In addition to the latest Planck data, for our main analyses, we use background constraints from baryonic acoustic oscillations, typeIa supernovae, and local measurements of the Hubble constant. We further show the impact of measurements of the cosmological perturbations, such as redshiftspace distortions and weak gravitational lensing. These additional probes are important tools for testing MG models and for breaking degeneracies that are still present in the combination of Planck and background data sets. All results that include only background parameterizations (expansion of the equation of state, early DE, general potentials in minimallycoupled scalar fields or principal component analysis) are in agreement with ACDM. When testing models that also change perturbations (even when the background is fixed to ACDM), some tensions appear in a few scenarios: the maximum one found is similar to 2 sigma for Planck TT + lowP when parameterizing observables related to the gravitational potentials with a chosen time dependence; the tension increases to, at most, 3 sigma when external data sets are included. It however disappears when including CMB lensing.


9. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XV. Gravitational lensing
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 fullmission release. Using a polarizationonly estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We crosscheck the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40 <= L <= 400, and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the Lambda CDM model that best fits the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percentlevel measurement of the parameter combination sigma(8) Omega(0.25)(m) = 0.591 +/ 0.021. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the Emode polarization, also measured by Planck, to generate an estimate of the lensing Bmode. We show that this lensing Bmode estimate is correlated with the Bmodes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10 sigma, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the largescale temperature anisotropies, detecting a crosscorrelation at the 3 sigma level, as expected because of dark energy in the concordance Lambda CDM model.


10. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XVII. Constraints on primordial nonGaussianity
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and Emode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial nonGaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators  separable templatefitting (KSW), binned, and modal we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone f(NL)(local) = 2.5 +/ 5.7, f(NL)(equil) = 16 +/ 70, and f(NL)(ortho) = 34 +/ 33 (68% CL, statistical). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain f(NL)(local) = 0.8 +/ 5.0, f(NL)(equil) = 4 +/ 43, and f(NL)(ortho) = 26 +/ 21 (68% CL, statistical). The results are based on comprehensive crossvalidation of these estimators on Gaussian and nonGaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with estimators based on measuring the Minkowski functionals of the CMB. The effect of timedomain deglitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization data as preliminary, owing to a known mismatch of the noise model in simulations and the data. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present modelindependent, threedimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and derive constraints on early universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general singlefield models of inflation, axion inflation, initial state modifications, models producing parityviolating tensor bispectra, and directionally dependent vector models. We present a wide survey of scaledependent feature and resonance models, accounting for the look elsewhere effect in estimating the statistical significance of features. We also look for isocurvature NG, and find no signal, but we obtain constraints that improve significantly with the inclusion of polarization. The primordial trispectrum amplitude in the local model is constrained to be g(NL)(local) = (9.0 +/ 7.7) x 10(4) (68% CL statistical), and we perform an analysis of trispectrum shapes beyond the local case. The global picture that emerges is one of consistency with the premises of the Lambda CDM cosmology, namely that the structure we observe today was sourced by adiabatic, passive, Gaussian, and primordial seed perturbations.

