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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Saeed Mohamed) srt2:(2019)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Saeed Mohamed) > (2019)

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2.
  • Burstein, Roy, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 574:7778, s. 353-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2—to end preventable child deaths by 2030—we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000–2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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3.
  • El-Seedi, H. R., et al. (författare)
  • Cardenolides : Insights from chemical structure and pharmacological utility
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Pharmacological Research. - : Academic Press. - 1043-6618 .- 1096-1186. ; 141, s. 123-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are a class of naturally occurring steroid-like compounds, and members of this class have been in clinical use for more than 1500 years. They have been used in folk medicine as arrow poisons, abortifacients, heart tonics, emetics, and diuretics as well as in other applications. The major use of CGs today is based on their ability to inhibit the membrane-bound Na + /K + -ATPase enzyme, and they are regarded as an effective treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, increasing evidence has indicated the potential cytotoxic effects of CGs against various types of cancer. In this review, we highlight some of the structural features of this class of natural products that are crucial for their efficacy, some methods of isolating these compounds from natural resources, and the structural elucidation tools that have been used. We also describe their physicochemical properties and several modern biotechnological approaches for preparing CGs that do not require plant sources.
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4.
  • Efferth, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Biopiracy versus One-World Medicine-From colonial relicts to global collaborative concepts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Phytomedicine. - : Elsevier. - 0944-7113 .- 1618-095X. ; 53, s. 319-331
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neo-colonialism. Hypothesis: The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe. Study design: Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of the health care systems in developing countries still remain. Current approaches to secure primary health care offer only fragmentary solutions at best. Conventional medicine from industrialized countries cannot be afforded by the impoverished population in the Third World. Confronted with exploding costs, even health systems in Western countries are endangered to burst. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is popular among the general public in industrialized countries, although the efficacy is not sufficiently proven according to the standards of evidence-based medicine. CAM is often available without prescription as over-the-counter products with non-calculated risks concerning erroneous self-medication and safety/toxicity issues. The concept of integrative medicine attempts to combine holistic CAM approaches with evidence-based principles of conventional medicine. Conclusion: To realize the concept of One-World Medicine, a number of standards have to be set to assure safety, efficacy and applicability of traditional medicine, e.g. sustainable production and quality control of herbal products, performance of placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trials, phytovigilance, as well as education of health professionals and patients.
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5.
  • Khalifa, Shaden A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Marine Natural Products : A Source of Novel Anticancer Drugs
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Marine Drugs. - : MDPI. - 1660-3397 .- 1660-3397. ; 17:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer remains one of the most lethal diseases worldwide. There is an urgent need for new drugs with novel modes of action and thus considerable research has been conducted for new anticancer drugs from natural sources, especially plants, microbes and marine organisms. Marine populations represent reservoirs of novel bioactive metabolites with diverse groups of chemical structures. This review highlights the impact of marine organisms, with particular emphasis on marine plants, algae, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, sponges and soft corals. Anti-cancer effects of marine natural products in in vitro and in vivo studies were first introduced; their activity in the prevention of tumor formation and the related compound-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicities were tackled. The possible molecular mechanisms behind the biological effects are also presented. The review highlights the diversity of marine organisms, novel chemical structures, and chemical property space. Finally, therapeutic strategies and the present use of marine-derived components, its future direction and limitations are discussed.
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6.
  • Khalifa, Shaden A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Truffles : From Islamic culture to chemistry, pharmacology, and food trends in recent times
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Trends in Food Science & Technology. - : Elsevier. - 0924-2244 .- 1879-3053. ; 91, s. 193-218
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Many years back, during Islamic civilization, truffle (Kama'ah) was mentioned by Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) to be well recognized as a therapeutic for eye diseases. (In the Sahihain, it is narrated that the Prophet said: The Kama'ah (truffle) is among the manna (which is a food mentioned in the Qura'n, Surah alBagarah), and its water (extract or juice) cures the eye diseases). Truffles represent a large group of soil fungi belonging to Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota. Because of their exceptionally profitable protein, fat, polysaccharide, carbohydrate, ash, mineral, phenolic and other organic molecule contents, truffles have been appreciated as food, nutritional and therapeutic sources for many years. Scope and approach: The main aim of this review is to highlight a comprehensive compile of truffles traditional uses, mycochemistry, pharmacological properties and nutritional value with special focus on desert truffles. Such review represents a good candidate reference for future truffle research. Key findings and conclusions: In this review, we discuss the traditional aspects of truffles with reference to Prophetic Traditional Medicine (al-Tibb al-Nabawi) to cure aliments such as trachoma. The use of truffles is justified by many recent research findings with regards to their anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties. Although the molecular mechanism and functions of the different truffle species have been intensively studied, we look forward to translating these traditional remedies into preclinical and clinical applications.
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7.
  • El-Seedi, Hesham, et al. (författare)
  • Metal nanoparticles fabricated by green chemistry using natural extracts : biosynthesis, mechanisms, and applications
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: RSC Advances. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 2046-2069 .- 2046-2069. ; 9:42, s. 24539-24559
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanoparticles (NPs) are new inspiring clinical targets that have emerged from persistent efforts with unique properties and diverse applications. However, the main methods currently utilized in their production are not environmentally friendly. With the aim of promoting a green approach for the synthesis of NPs, this review describes eco-friendly methods for the preparation of biogenic NPs and the known mechanisms for their biosynthesis. Natural plant extracts contain many different secondary metabolites and biomolecules, including flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and enzymes. Secondary metabolites can enable the reduction of metal ions to NPs in eco-friendly one-step synthetic processes. Moreover, the green synthesis of NPs using plant extracts often obviates the need for stabilizing and capping agents and yields biologically active shape- and size-dependent products. Herein, we review the formation of metallic NPs induced by natural extracts and list the plant extracts used in the synthesis of NPs. In addition, the use of bacterial and fungal extracts in the synthesis of NPs is highlighted, and the parameters that influence the rate of particle production, size, and morphology are discussed. Finally, the importance and uniqueness of NP-based products are illustrated, and their commercial applications in various fields are briefly featured.
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8.
  • Shahzad, Danish, et al. (författare)
  • Novel C-2 Symmetric Molecules as -Glucosidase and -Amylase Inhibitors : Design, Synthesis, Kinetic Evaluation, Molecular Docking and Pharmacokinetics
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecules. - : MDPI. - 1420-3049 .- 1420-3049. ; 24:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A series of symmetrical salicylaldehyde-bishydrazine azo molecules, 5a-5h, have been synthesized, characterized by H-1-NMR and C-13-NMR, and evaluated for their in vitro -glucosidase and -amylase inhibitory activities. All the synthesized compounds efficiently inhibited both enzymes. Compound 5g was the most potent derivative in the series, and powerfully inhibited both -glucosidase and -amylase. The IC50 of 5g against -glucosidase was 0.35917 +/- 0.0189 mu M (standard acarbose IC50 = 6.109 +/- 0.329 mu M), and the IC50 value of 5g against -amylase was 0.4379 +/- 0.0423 mu M (standard acarbose IC50 = 33.178 +/- 2.392 mu M). The Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that compound 5g is a competitive inhibitor of -glucosidase. The binding interactions of the most active analogues were confirmed through molecular docking studies. Docking studies showed that 5g interacts with the residues Trp690, Asp548, Arg425, and Glu426, which form hydrogen bonds to 5g with distances of 2.05, 2.20, 2.10 and 2.18 angstrom, respectively. All compounds showed high mutagenic and tumorigenic behaviors, and only 5e showed irritant properties. In addition, all the derivatives showed good antioxidant activities. The pharmacokinetic evaluation also revealed promising results
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9.
  • Ujan, Rabail, et al. (författare)
  • Drug-1,3,4-Thiadiazole Conjugates as Novel Mixed-Type Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase : Synthesis, Molecular Docking, Pharmacokinetics, and ADMET Evaluation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecules. - : MDPI. - 1420-3049 .- 1420-3049. ; 24:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A small library of new drug-1,3,4-thiazidazole hybrid compounds (3a-3i) was synthesized, characterized, and assessed for their acetyl cholinesterase enzyme (AChE) inhibitory and free radical scavenging activities. The newly synthesized derivatives showed promising activities against AChE, especially compound 3b (IC50 18.1 +/- 0.9 nM), which was the most promising molecule in the series, and was substantially more active than the reference drug (neostigmine methyl sulfate; IC50 2186.5 +/- 98.0 nM). Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate the mode of inhibition of the enzyme, and the compounds showed mixed-type mechanisms for inhibiting AChE. The Ki of 3b (0.0031 mu M) indicates that it can be very effective, even at low concentrations. Compounds 3a-3i all complied with Lipinski's Rule of Five, and showed high drug-likeness scores. The pharmacokinetic parameters revealed notable lead-like properties with insignificant liver and skin-penetrating effects. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated pi-pi interactions with key amino acid residues related to Tyr124, Trp286, and Tyr341.
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10.
  • Zahra, Maram Hussein, et al. (författare)
  • Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) : Food and Medicinal Plant with Potential In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Cancer Activities
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecules. - : MDPI. - 1420-3049 .- 1420-3049. ; 24:13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aim: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.Methods: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.Results: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, H-1-NMR and C-13-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 mu g/mL, respectively.Conclusion: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.
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