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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Sharpe James) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Sharpe James) > (2005-2009)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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1.
  • Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 438:7069, s. 803-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), together with a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across breeds. The dog is of particular interest because it provides important evolutionary information and because existing breeds show great phenotypic diversity for morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. We use sequence comparison with the primate and rodent lineages to shed light on the structure and evolution of genomes and genes. Notably, the majority of the most highly conserved non-coding sequences in mammalian genomes are clustered near a small subset of genes with important roles in development. Analysis of SNPs reveals long-range haplotypes across the entire dog genome, and defines the nature of genetic diversity within and across breeds. The current SNP map now makes it possible for genome-wide association studies to identify genes responsible for diseases and traits, with important consequences for human and companion animal health.
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2.
  • Zody, Michael, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 440:7087, s. 1045-1049
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chromosome 17 is unusual among the human chromosomes in many respects. It is the largest human autosome with orthology to only a single mouse chromosome, mapping entirely to the distal half of mouse chromosome 11. Chromosome 17 is rich in protein-coding genes, having the second highest gene density in the genome. It is also enriched in segmental duplications, ranking third in density among the autosomes. Here we report a finished sequence for human chromosome 17, as well as a structural comparison with the finished sequence for mouse chromosome 11, the first finished mouse chromosome. Comparison of the orthologous regions reveals striking differences. In contrast to the typical pattern seen in mammalian evolution, the human sequence has undergone extensive intrachromosomal rearrangement, whereas the mouse sequence has been remarkably stable. Moreover, although the human sequence has a high density of segmental duplication, the mouse sequence has a very low density. Notably, these segmental duplications correspond closely to the sites of structural rearrangement, demonstrating a link between duplication and rearrangement. Examination of the main classes of duplicated segments provides insight into the dynamics underlying expansion of chromosome-specific, low-copy repeats in the human genome.
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3.
  • Alanentalo, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of islet-infiltrate interactions based on optical projection tomography assessments of the intact adult mouse pancreas
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Optics. - Bellingham, WA : SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering. - 1083-3668 .- 1560-2281. ; 13:5, s. 054070-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A predicament when assessing the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes (T1D) has been to maintain simultaneous global and regional information on the loss of insulin-cell mass and the progression of insulitis. We present a procedure for high-resolution 3-D analyses of regions of interest (ROIs), defined on the basis of global assessments of the 3-D distribution, size, and shape of molecularly labeled structures within the full volume of the intact mouse pancreas. We apply a refined protocol for optical projection tomography (OPT)-aided whole pancreas imaging in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy of site-directed pancreatic microbiopsies. As such, the methodology provides a useful tool for detailed cellular and molecular assessments of the autoimmune insulitis in T1D. It is anticipated that the same approach could be applied to other areas of research where 3-D molecular distributions of both global and regional character is required.
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6.
  • Haas, Brian J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 461:7262, s. 393-398
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in famine and population displacement(1). To this day, it affects world agriculture by causing the most destructive disease of potato, the fourth largest food crop and a critical alternative to the major cereal crops for feeding the world's population(1). Current annual worldwide potato crop losses due to late blight are conservatively estimated at $6.7 billion(2). Management of this devastating pathogen is challenged by its remarkable speed of adaptation to control strategies such as genetically resistant cultivars(3,4). Here we report the sequence of the P. infestans genome, which at similar to 240 megabases (Mb) is by far the largest and most complex genome sequenced so far in the chromalveolates. Its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA accounting for similar to 74% of the genome. Comparison with two other Phytophthora genomes showed rapid turnover and extensive expansion of specific families of secreted disease effector proteins, including many genes that are induced during infection or are predicted to have activities that alter host physiology. These fast-evolving effector genes are localized to highly dynamic and expanded regions of the P. infestans genome. This probably plays a crucial part in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plants and underpins its evolutionary potential.
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7.
  • Mikkelsen, Tarjei S, et al. (författare)
  • Genome of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica reveals innovation in non-coding sequences
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 447:7141, s. 167-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of the grey, short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). As the first metatherian ('marsupial') species to be sequenced, the opossum provides a unique perspective on the organization and evolution of mammalian genomes. Distinctive features of the opossum chromosomes provide support for recent theories about genome evolution and function, including a strong influence of biased gene conversion on nucleotide sequence composition, and a relationship between chromosomal characteristics and X chromosome inactivation. Comparison of opossum and eutherian genomes also reveals a sharp difference in evolutionary innovation between protein-coding and non-coding functional elements. True innovation in protein-coding genes seems to be relatively rare, with lineage-specific differences being largely due to diversification and rapid turnover in gene families involved in environmental interactions. In contrast, about 20% of eutherian conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) are recent inventions that postdate the divergence of Eutheria and Metatheria. A substantial proportion of these eutherian-specific CNEs arose from sequence inserted by transposable elements, pointing to transposons as a major creative force in the evolution of mammalian gene regulation.
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