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Sökning: WFRF:(Sharpe James) > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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2.
  • Fazey, Ioan, et al. (författare)
  • Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Energy Research and Social Science. - : Elsevier. - 2214-6296 .- 2214-6326. ; 70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
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3.
  • Hahn, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Topologically selective islet vulnerability and self-sustained downregulation of markers for β-cell maturity in streptozotocin-induced diabetes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mouse models of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes represent the most widely used preclinical diabetes research systems. We applied state of the art optical imaging schemes, spanning from single islet resolution to the whole organ, providing a first longitudinal, 3D-spatial and quantitative account of β-cell mass (BCM) dynamics and islet longevity in STZ-treated mice. We demonstrate that STZ-induced β-cell destruction predominantly affects large islets in the pancreatic core. Further, we show that hyperglycemic STZ-treated mice still harbor a large pool of remaining β-cells but display pancreas-wide downregulation of glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2). Islet gene expression studies confirmed this downregulation and revealed impaired β-cell maturity. Reversing hyperglycemia by islet transplantation partially restored the expression of markers for islet function, but not BCM. Jointly our results indicate that STZ-induced hyperglycemia results from β-cell dysfunction rather than β-cell ablation and that hyperglycemia in itself sustains a negative feedback loop restraining islet function recovery.
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4.
  • Jimenez-Moreno, A. Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Patient Preferences in Rare Diseases: A Qualitative Study in Neuromuscular Disorders to Inform a Quantitative Preference Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Patient. - 1178-1653 .- 1178-1661.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IntroductionIt has become increasingly important to include patient preference information in decision-making processes for drug development. As neuromuscular disorders represent multisystem, debilitating, and progressive rare diseases with few treatment options, this study aimed to explore unmet health care needs and patient treatment preferences for two neuromuscular disorders, myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and mitochondrial myopathies (MM) to inform early stages of drug development.MethodsFifteen semi-structured interviews and five focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with DM1 and MM adult patients and caregivers. Topics discussed included (1) reasons for study participation; (2) disease signs/symptoms and their impact on daily lives; (3) top desired benefits; and (4) acceptability of risks and tolerance levels for a hypothetical new treatment. Data were analyzed following a thematic ‘code’ approach.ResultsA total of 52 participants representing a wide range of disease severities participated. ‘Muscle strength’ and ‘energy and endurance’ were the disease-related unmet needs most often mentioned. Additionally, improved ‘balance’, ‘cognition’ and ‘gut function’ were the top desired treatment benefits, while ‘damage to the liver, kidneys or eyes’ was the most concerning risk. Factors influencing their tolerance to risks related to previously having experienced the risk and differentiation between permanent and temporary risks. A few differences were elicited between patients and caregivers.ConclusionsThis qualitative study provided an open forum to elicit treatment-desired benefits and acceptable risks to be established by patients themselves. These findings can inform decisions for developing new treatments and the design of clinical trials for DM1 and MM.
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