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Sökning: WFRF:(Siegbahn Agneta) > (2020-2023) > (2020)

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1.
  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Serial measurement of interleukin-6 and risk of mortality in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation : Insights from ARISTOTLE and RE-LY trials.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Elsevier BV. - 1538-7933 .- 1538-7836. ; 18:9, s. 2287-2295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The inflammatory biomarker interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF).OBJECTIVE: To investigate if repeated IL-6 measurements improve the prognostication for stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF.METHODS: IL-6 levels by ELISA were measured at study entry and at 2 months in 4830 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial with 1.8 years median follow-up. In the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, IL-6 was measured at study entry, 3, 6, and 12 months in 2559 patients with 2.0 years median follow-up. Associations between a second IL-6 measurement and outcomes, adjusted for baseline IL-6, clinical variables, and other cardiovascular biomarkers, were analyzed by Cox regression.RESULTS: Median IL-6 levels were 2.0 ng/L (interquartile range [IQR] 1.30-3.20) and 2.10 ng/L (IQR 1.40-3.40) at the two time-points in ARISTOTLE, and, in RE-LY, 2.5 ng/L (IQR 1.6-4.3), 2.5 ng/L (IQR 1.6-4.2), 2.4 ng/L (IQR 1.6, 3.9), and 2.4 ng/L (IQR 1.5, 3.9), respectively. IL-6 was associated with mortality; hazard ratios per 50% higher IL-6 at 2 or 3 months, respectively, were 1.32 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.41; P < .0001) in ARISTOTLE, and 1.11 (1.01-1.22, P = .0290) in RE-LY; with improved C index from 0.74 to 0.76 in ARISTOTLE, but not in the smaller RE-LY cohort. There were no consistent associations with second IL-6 and stroke or systemic embolism, or major bleeding.CONCLUSIONS: Persistent systemic inflammatory activity, assessed by repeated IL-6 measurements, is associated with mortality independent of established clinical risk factors and other strong cardiovascular biomarkers in anticoagulated patients with AF.
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2.
  • d'Alessandro, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Thrombo-Inflammation in Cardiovascular Disease : An Expert Consensus Document from the Third Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Georg Thieme Verlag KG. - 0340-6245 .- 2567-689X. ; 120:4, s. 538-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thrombo-inflammation describes the complex interplay between blood coagulation and inflammation that plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. The third Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis assembled basic, translational, and clinical scientists to discuss the origin and potential consequences of thrombo-inflammation in the etiology, diagnostics, and management of patients with cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. This article presents a state-of-the-art reflection of expert opinions and consensus recommendations regarding the following topics: (1) challenges of the endothelial cell barrier; (2) circulating cells and thrombo-inflammation, focused on platelets, neutrophils, and neutrophil extracellular traps; (3) procoagulant mechanisms; (4) arterial vascular changes in atherogenesis; attenuating atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury; (5) management of patients with arterial vascular disease; and (6) pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and late consequences of venous thromboembolism.
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3.
  • Edén, Desireé (författare)
  • Tissue Factor regulation, signaling and functions beyond coagulation with a focus on diabetes
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Background: Tissue factor (TF) is a 47 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein best known for initiating the coagulation cascade upon binding of its ligand FVIIa. Apart from its physiological role in coagulation, TF and TF/FVIIa signaling has proved to be involved in diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Biological functions coupled to TF/FVIIa signaling include diet-induced obesity, apoptosis, angiogenesis and migration.Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of TF/FVIIa in cells of importance in diabetes, to further investigate the mechanism behind TF/FVIIa anti-apoptotic signaling in cancer cells and lastly to examine the regulation of TF expression in monocytes by micro RNAs (miRNA).Results: In paper I we found that TF/FVIIa signaling augments cytokine-induced beta cell death and impairs glucose stimulated insulin secretion from human pancreatic islets. In paper II the relevance of TF/FVIIa in isolated human primary adipocytes was investigated. Adipocytes are a target cell for insulin and diabetics typically have increased lipolysis and impaired glucose uptake. No evidence was found for a role of TF/FVIIa in lipolysis or glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, adipocytes were found to express TF and FVII. The FVII produced was sufficient to initiate coagulation in the adipocytes. In paper III an anti-apoptotic TF/FVIIa induced signaling pathway in prostate and breast cancer cells was investigated in depth. Previous research has shown that TF/FVIIa signaling results in transactivation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) leading to subsequent protection from apoptosis induced by TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). The current results propose a mechanism where IGF-1R transactivation by TF/FVIIa is dependent on integrin β1 (ITGβ1) signaling. TF/FVIIa/ ITGβ1 signaling was found to result in phosphorylation of src and subsequent phosphorylation of caveolin 1 (Cav1). Once phosphorylated, the inhibitory effect of Cav1 on IGF-1R is cancelled, resulting in IGF-1R activation. In paper IV the role of miRNA regulation of TF expression in monocytic cells was investigated. The miRNA miR-223-3p was identified to be differentially expressed in U937 cells undergoing differentiation to a more monocyte-like phenotype and an anti-parallel correlation between TF and miR-223-3p expression in monocytes was proved. Hence, miR-223-3p regulates the inducible expression of TF in monocytes.Conclusions: The work in this thesis furthers the knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind TF regulation and TF/FVIIa signaling and some functional consequences as well as their biological relevance in diabetes. 
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4.
  • Folkersen, Lasse, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic and drug target evaluation of 90 cardiovascular proteins in 30,931 individuals.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature metabolism. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2522-5812. ; 2:10, s. 1135-1148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Circulating proteins are vital in human health and disease and are frequently used as biomarkers for clinical decision-making or as targets for pharmacological intervention. Here, we map and replicate protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) for 90 cardiovascular proteins in over 30,000 individuals, resulting in 451 pQTLs for 85 proteins. For each protein, we further perform pathway mapping to obtain trans-pQTL gene and regulatory designations. We substantiate these regulatory findings with orthogonal evidence for trans-pQTLs using mouse knockdown experiments (ABCA1 and TRIB1) and clinical trial results (chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5), with consistent regulation. Finally, we evaluate known drug targets, and suggest new target candidates or repositioning opportunities using Mendelian randomization. This identifies 11 proteins with causal evidence of involvement in human disease that have not previously been targeted, including EGF, IL-16, PAPPA, SPON1, F3, ADM, CASP-8, CHI3L1, CXCL16, GDF15 and MMP-12. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of large-scale mapping of the genetics of the proteome and provide a resource for future precision studies of circulating proteins in human health.
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5.
  • Gregersen, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Legumain in Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 9:17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The cysteine protease legumain is increased in patients with atherosclerosis, but its causal role in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease is still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of legumain with clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS : Serum levels of legumain were analyzed in 4883 patients with acute coronary syndrome from a substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Levels were analyzed at admission and after 1 month follow-up. Associations between legumain and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and its individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. At baseline, a 50% increase in legumain level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.21),P=0.0018, for the primary composite end point, adjusted for randomized treatment. The association remained significant after adjustment for important clinical and demographic variables (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19;P=0.013) but not in the fully adjusted model. Legumain levels at 1 month were not associated with the composite end point but were negatively associated with stroke (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88;P=0.0069), including in the fully adjusted model (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.88;P=0.0114). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline legumain was associated with the primary outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but not in the fully adjusted model. The association between high levels of legumain at 1 month and decreased occurrence of stroke could be of interest from a mechanistic point of view, illustrating the potential dual role of legumain during atherogenesis and acute coronary syndrome. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00391872.
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6.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Different Estimates of Renal Function With Cardiovascular Mortality and Bleeding in Atrial Fibrillation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 9:18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background We compared different methods of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and their association with cardiovascular death and major bleeding in 14 980 patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Methods and Results eGFR was calculated using equations based on creatinine (Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]) and/or cystatin C (CKD-EPI(CysC)and CKD-EPICysC+Creatinine). These 5 eGFR equations, as well as the individual variables that are used in these equations, were assessed for correlation and discriminatory ability for cardiovascular death and major bleeding. The median age was 70.0 years, and 35.6% were women. The median eGFR was highest with Cockcroft-Gault (74.1 mL/min) and CKD-EPICysC(74.2 mL/min), and lowest with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (66.5 mL/min). Correlation between methods ranged from 0.49 (Cockroft-Gault and CKD-EPICysC) to 0.99 (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and CKD-EPI). Among the eGFR equations, those based on cystatin C yielded the highest C indices for cardiovascular death and major bleeding: 0.628 (CKD-EPICysC) and 0.612 (CKD-EPICysC+Creatinine), respectively. A model based on the variables within the different eGFR equations (age, sex, weight, creatinine, and cystatin C) yielded the highest discriminatory value for both outcomes, with a C index of 0.673 and 0.656, respectively. Conclusions In patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation, correlation between eGFR calculated using different methods varied substantially. Cystatin C-based eGFRs seem to provide the most robust information for predicting death and bleeding. A model based on the individual variables within the eGFR equations, however, provided the highest discriminatory value. Our findings may help refine risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and define how renal function should be determined in future atrial fibrillation studies.
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7.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of the Age, Biomarkers, and Clinical History-Bleeding Risk Score in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation With Combined Aspirin and Anticoagulation Therapy Enrolled in the ARISTOTLE and RE-LY Trials
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA Network Open. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2574-3805. ; 3:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease have indications for preventing stroke with oral anticoagulation therapy and preventingmyocardial infarction and stent thrombosis with platelet inhibition. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the recently developed ABC (age, biomarkers, and clinical history)bleeding risk score might be useful to identify patients with AF with different risks of bleeding during concomitant aspirin and anticoagulation therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The biomarkers in the ABC-bleeding risk score (growth differentiation factor 15, hemoglobin, and troponin) were measured in blood samples collected at randomization between 2006 and 2010 in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial and between 2005 and 2009 in the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, both of which were multinational randomized clinical trials. The trials were reported 2011 and 2009, respectively. A total of 24 349 patients with AF (14 980 patients from the ARISTOTLE trial and 9369 patients from the RE-LY trial) were analyzed in the present cohort study. The median (interquartile range) length of follow-up was 1.8 (1.3-2.3) years in the ARISTOTLE cohort and 2.0 (1.6-2.3) years in the RE-LY cohort. Data analysis was performed from February 2018 to June 2019. EXPOSURES Concomitant aspirin treatment during study follow-up. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Time to first occurrence of a major bleeding was determined according to International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis definition. Hazard ratios were estimated with Cox models adjusted for ABC-bleeding risk score and randomized treatment. RESULTS The median (interquartile range) age was 70 (63-76) years in the ARISTOTLE cohort and 72 (67-77) years in the RE-LY cohort (5238 patients [35.6%] in the ARISTOTLE cohort and 3086 patients [36.4%] in the RE-LY cohort were women). The total number of patients with a first major bleeding event was 651 (207 with aspirin and 444 without) in ARISTOTLE and 463 (238 with aspirin and 225 without) in RE-LY. For both cohorts, in those with a lowABC-bleeding risk score, the absolute bleeding rate was low even with concomitant aspirin treatment, whereas in those with a higher ABC-bleeding risk score, the rate of bleedingwas higher with concomitant aspirin compared with oral anticoagulation alone (ARISTOTLE, hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.40-1.95; P <.001; RE-LY, hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.42-2.04; P <.001). Thus, a low annual ABC-bleeding risk (eg, 0.5% without aspirin use) would with concomitant aspirin result in an annual rate of 0.8%, and a high estimated ABC-bleeding risk (eg, 3.0%) would result in a substantially higher rate of 5.0%. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that the ABC-bleeding risk score identifies patients with different risks of bleeding when combining aspirin and oral anticoagulation. The ABC-bleeding risk score may, therefore, be a useful tool for decision support concerning intensity and duration of combination antithrombotic treatment in patients with AF and coronary artery disease.
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8.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • Screening of Multiple Biomarkers Associated With Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 9:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundTo explore the pathophysiological features of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), we evaluated the association between 268 plasma proteins and subsequent ischemic stroke in 2 large AF cohorts receiving oral anticoagulation.Methods and ResultsA case‐cohort sample of patients with AF from the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, including 282 cases with ischemic stroke or systemic embolism and a random sample of 4124 without these events, during 1.9 years of follow‐up was used for identification. Validation was provided by a similar case‐cohort sample of patients with AF from the RE‐LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long‐Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, including 149 cases with ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and a random sample of 1062 without these events. In plasma obtained before randomization, 268 unique biomarkers were measured with OLINK proximity extension assay panels (CVD II, CVD III, and Inflammation) and conventional immunoassays. The association between biomarkers and outcomes was evaluated by random survival forest and adjusted Cox regression. According to random survival forest or Cox regression analyses, the biomarkers most strongly and consistently associated with ischemic stroke/systemic embolism were matrix metalloproteinase‐9, NT‐proBNP (N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide), osteopontin, sortilin, soluble suppression of tumorigenesis 2, and trefoil factor‐3. The corresponding hazard ratios (95% CIs) for an interquartile difference were as follows: 1.18 (1.00–1.38), 1.55 (1.28–1.88), 1.28 (1.07–1.53), 1.19 (1.02–1.39), 1.23 (1.05–1.45), and 1.19 (0.97–1.45), respectively.ConclusionsIn patients with AF, of 268 unique biomarkers, the 6 biomarkers most strongly associated with subsequent ischemic stroke/systemic embolism represent fibrosis/remodeling (matrix metalloproteinase‐9 and soluble suppression of tumorigenesis 2), cardiac dysfunction (NT‐proBNP), vascular calcification (osteopontin), metabolism (sortilin), and mucosal integrity/ischemia (trefoil factor‐3).RegistrationURL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifiers: NCT00412984 and NCT00262600.
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9.
  • Hilvo, Mika, et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of Residual Risk by Ceramide-Phospholipid Score in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease on Optimal Medical Therapy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 9:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Identification of patients with stable coronary heart disease who are at significant residual risk could be helpful for targeted prevention. Our aim was to determine the prognostic value of the recently introduced ceramide-and phospholipid-based risk score, the Cardiovascular Event Risk Test (CERT2), in patients with stable coronary heart disease on optimal medical therapy and to identify biological processes that contribute to the CERT2 score. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma samples (n=11 222) obtained from the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) trial were analyzed using a tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. STABILITY was a trial in patients with stable coronary heart disease randomized to the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor darapladib or placebo on optimized medical therapy at baseline, with a median follow-up of 3.7 years. Hazard ratios per SD for the CERT2 risk score were 1.32 (95% CI, 1.25-1.39) for major adverse cardiovascular event, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.35-1.59) for cardiovascular death, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.16-1.49) for stroke, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.14-1.33) for myocardial infarction, and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.39-1.76) for hospitalization due to heart failure, when adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. CERT2 showed correlation (P<0.001, r>0.2) with inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, the heart failure marker N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After also adjusting for levels of other prognostic biomarkers, the CERT2 score was still independently related to the risk of cardiovascular death but not to nonfatal events. CONCLUSIONS: The CERT2 risk score can detect residual risk in patients with stable coronary heart disease and is associated with biomarkers indicating inflammation, myocardial necrosis, myocardial dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and dyslipidemia.
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10.
  • Khandagale, Avinash, et al. (författare)
  • Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Modulation of Pulmonary Endothelial Function and Angiogenesis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 40:9, s. 2293-2309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the potential to act as intercellular communicators. The aims were to characterize circulating EVs in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and to explore whether these EVs contribute to endothelial activation and angiogenesis. Approach and Results: Patients with PAH (n=70) and healthy controls (HC; n=20) were included in this cross-sectional study. EVs were characterized and human pulmonary endothelial cells (hPAECs) were incubated with purified EVs. Endothelial cell activity and proangiogenic markers were analyzed. Tube formation analysis was performed for hPAECs, and the involvement of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1) was evaluated. The numbers of CD62P(+), CD144(+), and CD235a EVs were higher in blood from PAH compared with HC. Thirteen proteins were differently expressed in PAH and HC EVs, where complement fragment C1q was the most significantly elevated protein (P=0.0009) in PAH EVs. Upon EVs-internalization in hPAECs, more PAH compared with HC EVs evaded lysosomes (P<0.01). As oppose to HC, PAH EVs stimulated hPAEC activation and induced transcription and translation of VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor A;P<0.05) and FGF (fibroblast growth factor;P<0.005) which were released in the cell supernatant. These proangiogenic proteins were higher in patient with PAH plasma compered with HC. PAH EVs induced a complex network of angiotubes in vitro, which was abolished by inhibitory PSGL-1antibody. Anti-PSGL-1 also inhibited EV-induced endothelial cell activation and PAH EV dependent increase of VEGF-A. Conclusions: Patients with PAH have higher levels of EVs harboring increased amounts of angiogenic proteins, which induce activation of hPAECs and in vitro angiogenesis. These effects were partly because of platelet-derived EVs evasion of lysosomes upon internalization within hPAEC and through possible involvement of P-selectin-PSGL-1 pathway.
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