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Sökning: WFRF:(Siegbahn Agneta) > (2020-2023) > (2022)

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1.
  • Attelind, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of apixaban plasma levels and their relationship to bleeding and thromboembolic events
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Genetics. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-8021. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Apixaban is a direct oral anticoagulant, a factor Xa inhibitor, used for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite using recommended dosing a few patients might still experience bleeding or lack of efficacy that might be related to inappropriate drug exposure. We conducted a genome-wide association study using data from 1,325 participants in the pivotal phase three trial of apixaban with the aim to identify genetic factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of apixaban. A candidate gene analysis was also performed for pre-specified variants in ABCB1, ABCG2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and SULT1A1, with a subsequent analysis of all available polymorphisms within the candidate genes. Significant findings were further evaluated to assess a potential association with clinical outcome such as bleeding or thromboembolic events. No variant was consistently associated with an altered apixaban exposure on a genome-wide level. The candidate gene analyses showed a statistically significant association with a well-known variant in the drug transporter gene ABCG2 (c.421G > T, rs2231142). Patients carrying this variant had a higher exposure to apixaban [area under the curve (AUC), beta = 151 (95% CI 59-243), p = 0.001]. On average, heterozygotes displayed a 5% increase of AUC and homozygotes a 17% increase of AUC, compared with homozygotes for the wild-type allele. Bleeding or thromboembolic events were not significantly associated with ABCG2 rs2231142. This large genome-wide study demonstrates that genetic variation in the drug transporter gene ABCG2 is associated with the pharmacokinetics of apixaban. However, the influence of this finding on drug exposure was small, and further studies are needed to better understand whether it is of relevance for ischemic and bleeding events.
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2.
  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers and heart failure events in patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE trial evaluated by a multi-state model
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 251, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. We investigated the prognostic impact of biomarkers on the development of HF and death in patients with AF and different left ventricular systolic function considering the influence of competing events.MethodsThe study included 11,818 patients with AF from the ARISTOTLE trial who at entry had information on history of HF, an estimate of left ventricular function and plasma samples for determination of biomarkers representing cardiorenal dysfunction (NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin C) and inflammation (GDF-15, IL-6, CRP). Patients were categorized into: (I) HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, n = 2,048), (II) HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, n = 2,520), and (III) No HF (n = 7,250). Biomarker associations with HF hospitalization and death were analyzed using a multi-state model accounting also for repeated events.ResultsBaseline levels of NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin C, GDF-15, IL-6, and CRP were highest in HFrEF and lowest in No HF. During median 1.9 years follow-up, 546 patients were hospitalized at least once for HF and 819 died. Higher levels of all investigated biomarkers were associated with both outcomes (all P < .0001), with highest event rates in HFrEF and lowest in No HF. The associations remained after adjustments and were more pronounced for first than for recurrent events.ConclusionsIn anticoagulated patients with AF, biomarkers indicating cardiorenal dysfunction and inflammation improve the identification of patients at risk of developing HF or worsening of already existing HF. These biomarkers might be useful for targeting novel HF therapies in patients with AF.
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3.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker-Based Prediction of Recurrent Ischemic Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 80:18, s. 1735-1747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there is residual and variable risk of recurrent ischemic events.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop biomarker-based prediction models for 1-year risk of cardiovascular (CV) death and myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.METHODS: We included 10,713 patients from the PLATO (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial in the development cohort and externally validated in 3,508 patients from the TRACER (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial. Variables contributing to risk of CV death/MI were assessed using Cox regression models, and a score was derived using subsets of variables approximating the full model.RESULTS: There were 632 and 190 episodes of CV death/MI in the development and validation cohorts. The most important predictors of CV death/MI were the biomarkers, growth differentiation factor 15, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which had greater prognostic value than all candidate variables. The final model included 8 items: age (A), biomarkers (B) (growth differentiation factor 15 and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and clinical variables (C) (extent of coronary artery disease, previous vascular disease, Killip class, ACS type, P2Y12 inhibitor). The model, named ABC-ACS ischemia, was well calibrated and showed good discriminatory ability for 1-year risk of CV death/MI with C-indices of 0.71 and 0.72 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. For CV death, the score performed better, with C-indices of 0.80 and 0.84 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: An 8-item score for the prediction of CV death/MI was developed and validated for patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The ABC-ACS ischemia score showed good calibration and discrimination and might be useful for risk prediction and decision support in patients with ACS. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872; Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar [SCH 530348; MK-5348] in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Participants With Acute Coronary Syndrome [TRACER]; NCT00527943)
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4.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of early myocardial reperfusion and perfusion on myocardial necrosis/dysfunction and inflammation in patients with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome : results from the PLATelet inhibition and patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 11:4, s. 336-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Restoration of myocardial blood flow and perfusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) measured using Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade (TFG) and perfusion grade (TMPG) is associated with improved outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Associations between TFG/TMPG and changes in biomarkers reflecting myocardial damage/dysfunction and inflammation is unknown. Methods and results Among 2606 patients included, TFG was evaluated in 2198 and TMPG in 1874 with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment ACS (NSTE-ACS). Biomarkers reflecting myocardial necrosis [troponin T (TnT)], myocardial dysfunction [N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)], inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)], and oxidative stress/ageing/inflammation [growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15)] were measured at baseline, discharge, and 1- and 6-month post-randomization. Associations between TFG/TMPG and changes in biomarker levels were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon signed test. In total, 1423 (54.6%) patients had STEMI and 1183 (45.4%) NSTE-ACS. Complete reperfusion after PCI with TFG = 3 was achieved in 1110 (85.3%) with STEMI and in 793 (88.5%) with NSTE-ACS. Normal myocardial perfusion with TMPG = 3 was achieved in 475 (41.6%) with STEMI and in 396 (54.0%) with NSTE-ACS. Levels of TnT, NT-proBNP, IL-6, CRP, and GDF-15 were substantially lower at discharge in patients with complete vs. incomplete TFG and STEMI (P < 0.01). This pattern was not observed for patients with NSTE-ACS. Patients with normal vs. abnormal TMPG and NSTE-ACS had lower levels of NT-proBNP at discharge (P = 0.01). Conclusions Successful restoration of epicardial blood flow in STEMI was associated with less myocardial necrosis/dysfunction and inflammation. Attainment of normal myocardial perfusion was associated with less myocardial dysfunction in NSTE-ACS.
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5.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein 10 : a novel risk marker of ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 44:3, s. 208-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Biomarkers specifically related to atrial tissue may increase the understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) and further improve risk prediction in this setting. Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a protein expressed in the atrial myocardium. We evaluated the association between BMP10 and the risk of ischaemic stroke and other cardiovascular events in large cohorts of patients with AF, treated with and without oral anticoagulation (OAC).METHODS AND RESULTS: BMP10 was measured in plasma samples collected at randomisation in patients with AF without OAC in the ACTIVE A and AVERROES trials (n = 2974), and with OAC in the ARISTOTLE trial (n = 13 079). BMP10 was analysed with a prototype Elecsys immunoassay. Associations with outcomes were evaluated by Cox-regression models adjusted for clinical characteristics, kidney function, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Median concentrations of BMP10 were 2.47 and 2.44 ng/mL, in the non-OAC and OAC cohort, respectively. Increasing BMP10 was associated with lower body mass index, older age, female sex, kidney dysfunction, and AF rhythm. BMP10 was consistently associated with ischaemic stroke. In the non-OAC cohort, BMP10 increased the concordance index of the multivariable model from 0.713 to 0.733 (P = 0.004) and in the OAC cohort from 0.673 to 0.694 (P < 0.001). Additionally, BMP10 maintained a significant prognostic value after additionally adjusting for NT-proBNP. BMP10 was not independently associated with bleeding or with death.CONCLUSION: The novel atrial biomarker BMP10 was independently associated with ischaemic stroke in patients with AF irrespective of OAC treatment. BMP10 seems to be more specifically related to the risk of ischaemic stroke in AF.ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARY: In this study, BMP10 may be a novel specific biomarker of ischaemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, irrespective of oral anticoagulation.
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6.
  • Khandagale, Avinash, et al. (författare)
  • MircoRNA in Extracellular Vesicles from Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Alters Endothelial Angiogenic Response
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences. - : MDPI. - 1661-6596 .- 1422-0067. ; 23:19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive elevation of pulmonary pressure leading to right ventricular dysfunction and is associated with a poor prognosis. Patients with PAH have increased numbers of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and altered expression of circulating microRNAs (miRs). The study aimed to evaluate the miR profile contained within purified EVs derived from the plasma of PAH patients as compared to healthy controls (HC). Circulating EVs, purified from platelet-free plasma were analyzed using flow cytometry, western blot, and electron microscopy. Total RNA isolated from EVs was subjected to Microarray analysis using GeneChip miRNA 4.0 Array and bioinformatics tools. Overexpression and inhibition of miRs were conducted in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs) that had been incubated previously with either PAH- or HC-derived EVs. Cell proliferation (MTT assay) and angiogenesis (tube formation assay) were tested in hPAECs to determine miR functionality. MiR profiling revealed 370 heats while comparing PAH and HC groups, 22 of which were found to be down-regulated and 6 were up-regulated in the PAH EVs. Among the altered miRs, miR-486-5p was overexpressed, while miR-26a-5p was downregulated in PAH EVs compared to HC EVs. Inhibition of mir-486-5p or overexpression of miR-26a-5p in hPAECs post-exposure of PAH EVs abrogated proangiogenic and proliferative effects posed by PAH EVs contrary to HC EVs. The angiogenic and proliferative effects of the miRs from PAH EVs were observed to be mediated through nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B activation. PAH EVs carry and present an altered miR profile that can be targeted to restrict angiogenesis and reduce pulmonary endothelium activation. Further studies concerning miRs from circulating heterogeneous EVs in PAH patients are warranted to understand their potential as targets for treatment in PAH.
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7.
  • Nelson, Thomas A, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effect of clopidogrel and ticagrelor on leukocyte count in relation to patient characteristics, biomarkers and genotype : a PLATO substudy.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Platelets. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0953-7104 .- 1369-1635. ; 33:3, s. 425-431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inflammation plays a key role in cardiovascular disease by contributing to atherothrombosis. The PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study (NCT00391872) compared ticagrelor to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and demonstrated fewer cardiovascular events with ticagrelor but lower white blood cell counts (WBC) with clopidogrel. In this further analysis of the PLATO biomarker substudy, we assessed associations between WBC and clinical characteristics, biomarker levels, and CYP2C19 polymorphisms.On-treatment mean (SD) WBC in the clopidogrel group was mildly reduced at each stage of follow-up compared with either the ticagrelor group (1 month: 7.27 (2.1) and 7.67 (2.23) x109/L for clopidogrel and ticagrelor, respectively; p < .001) or following cessation of clopidogrel (7.23 (1.97) x109/L, at 6 months vs 7.56 (2.28) x109/L after treatment cessation; P < .001). This occurred independently of baseline biomarkers and CYP2C19 genotype (where known). Adjusting for clinical characteristics and other biomarkers, no significant interaction was detected between clinical risk factors and the observed effect of clopidogrel on WBC.Clopidogrel weakly suppresses WBC, independent of clinical characteristics, baseline inflammatory biomarker levels, and CYP2C19 genotype. Further work is required to determine the mechanism for this effect and whether it contributes to clopidogrel's efficacy as well as therapeutic interaction with anti-inflammatory drugs.
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8.
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9.
  • Yang, Zhijian, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Landscape of the ACE2 Coronavirus Receptor
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 30:SUPPL 1, s. 36-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19, enters human cells using the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) protein as a receptor. ACE2 is thus key to the infection and treatment of the coronavirus. ACE2 is highly expressed in the heart and respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, playing important regulatory roles in the cardiovascular and other biological systems. However, the genetic basis of the ACE2 protein levels is not well understood.Methods: We have conducted the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of plasma ACE2 levels in >28 000 individuals of the SCALLOP Consortium (Systematic and Combined Analysis of Olink Proteins). We summarize the cross-sectional epidemiological correlates of circulating ACE2. Using the summary statistics-based high-definition likelihood method, we estimate relevant genetic correlations with cardiometabolic phenotypes, COVID-19, and other human complex traits and diseases. We perform causal inference of soluble ACE2 on vascular disease outcomes and COVID-19 severity using mendelian randomization. We also perform in silico functional analysis by integrating with other types of omics data.Results: We identified 10 loci, including 8 novel, capturing 30% of the heritability of the protein. We detected that plasma ACE2 was genetically correlated with vascular diseases, severe COVID-19, and a wide range of human complex diseases and medications. An X-chromosome cis-protein quantitative trait loci-based mendelian randomization analysis suggested a causal effect of elevated ACE2 levels on COVID-19 severity (odds ratio, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.10-2.42]; P=0.01), hospitalization (odds ratio, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.05-2.21]; P=0.03), and infection (odds ratio, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.08-2.37]; P=0.02). Tissue- and cell type-specific transcriptomic and epigenomic analysis revealed that the ACE2 regulatory variants were enriched for DNA methylation sites in blood immune cells.Conclusions: Human plasma ACE2 shares a genetic basis with cardiovascular disease, COVID-19, and other related diseases. The genetic architecture of the ACE2 protein is mapped, providing a useful resource for further biological and clinical studies on this coronavirus receptor.
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