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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Sirima Sodiomon B) srt2:(2016)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Sirima Sodiomon B) > (2016)

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1.
  • Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O, et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility of Malaria Diagnosis and Management in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda: A Community-Based Observational Study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 63:suppl 5, s. S245-S255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Malaria-endemic countries are encouraged to increase, expedite, and standardize care based on parasite diagnosis and treat confirmed malaria using oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) or rectal artesunate plus referral when patients are unable to take oral medication. In 172 villages in 3 African countries, trained community health workers (CHWs) assessed and diagnosed children aged between 6 months and 6 years using rapid histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based diagnostic tests (RDTs). Patients coming for care who could take oral medication were treated with ACTs, and those who could not were treated with rectal artesunate and referred to hospital. The full combined intervention package lasted 12 months. Changes in access and speed of care and clinical course were determined through 1746 random household interviews before and 3199 during the intervention. A total of 15 932 children were assessed: 6394 in Burkina Faso, 2148 in Nigeria, and 7390 in Uganda. Most children assessed (97.3% [15 495/15 932]) were febrile and most febrile cases (82.1% [12 725/15 495]) tested were RDT positive. Almost half of afebrile episodes (47.6% [204/429]) were RDT positive. Children eligible for rectal artesunate contributed 1.1% of episodes. The odds of using CHWs as the first point of care doubled (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-2.4; P < .0001). RDT use changed from 3.2% to 72.9% (OR, 80.8; 95% CI, 51.2-127.3; P < .0001). The mean duration of uncomplicated episodes reduced from 3.69 ± 2.06 days to 3.47 ± 1.61 days, Degrees of freedom (df) = 2960, Student's t (t) = 3.2 (P = .0014), and mean duration of severe episodes reduced from 4.24 ± 2.26 days to 3.7 ± 1.57 days, df = 749, t = 3.8, P = .0001. There was a reduction in children with danger signs from 24.7% before to 18.1% during the intervention (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, .59-.78; P < .0001). Provision of diagnosis and treatment via trained CHWs increases access to diagnosis and treatment, shortens clinical episode duration, and reduces the number of severe cases. This approach, recommended by the World Health Organization, improves malaria case management. ISRCTN13858170.
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2.
  • Castellani, Joëlle, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Improving Community-Based Access to Malaria Diagnosis and Treatment on Household Costs.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - 1537-6591. ; 63:suppl 5, s. S256-S263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Community health workers (CHWs) were trained in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda to diagnose febrile children using malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treat positive malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and those who could not take oral medicines with rectal artesunate. We quantified the impact of this intervention on private household costs for childhood febrile illness. Households with recent febrile illness in a young child in previous 2 weeks were selected randomly before and during the intervention and data obtained on household costs for the illness episode. Household costs included consultation fees, registration costs, user fees, diagnosis, bed, drugs, food, and transport costs. Private household costs per episode before and during the intervention were compared. The intervention's impact on household costs per episode was calculated and projected to districtwide impacts on household costs. Use of CHWs increased from 35% of illness episodes before the intervention to 50% during the intervention (P < .0001), and total household costs per episode decreased significantly in each country: from US Dollars (USD) $4.36 to USD $1.54 in Burkina Faso, from USD $3.90 to USD $2.04 in Nigeria, and from USD $4.46 to USD $1.42 in Uganda (all P < .0001). There was no difference in the time used by the child's caregiver to care for a sick child (59% before intervention vs 51% during intervention spent ≤2 days). Using the most recent population figures for each study district, we estimate that the intervention could save households a total of USD $29 965, USD $254 268, and USD $303 467, respectively, in the study districts in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda. Improving access to malaria diagnostics and treatments in malaria-endemic areas substantially reduces private household costs. The key challenge is to develop and strengthen community human resources to deliver the intervention, and ensure adequate supplies of commodities and supervision. We demonstrate feasibility and benefit to populations living in difficult circumstances. ISRCTN13858170.
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3.
  • Cherif, Mariama, et al. (författare)
  • Distribution of Fc gamma R gene polymorphisms among two sympatric populations in Mali : differing allele frequencies, associations with malariometric indices and implications for genetic susceptibility to malaria
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genetic polymorphisms in the complex gene cluster encoding human Fc-gamma receptors (Fc gamma Rs) may influence malaria susceptibility and pathogenesis. Studying genetic susceptibility to malaria is ideal among sympatric populations because the distribution of polymorphic genes among such populations can help in the identification malaria candidate genes. This study determined the distribution of three FcyRs single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Fc gamma RIIB-rs1050519, Fc gamma RIIC-rs3933769 and Fc gamma RIIIA-rs396991) among sympatric Fulani and Dogon children with uncomplicated malaria. The association of these SNPs with clinical, malariometric and immunological indices was also tested. Methods: This study involved 242 Fulani and Dogon volunteers from Mali age under 15 years. All SNPs were genotyped with predesigned TaqMan (R) SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypic and allelic distribution of SNPs was compared across ethnic groups using the Fisher exact test. Variations in clinical, malariometric and immunologic indices between groups were tested with Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test where appropriate. Results: The study confirmed known malariometric and immunologic differences between sympatric Fulani and non-Fulani tribes. Parasite density was lower in the Fulani than the Dogon (p < 0.0001). The mutant allele of Fc gamma RIIC (rs3933769) was found more frequently in the Fulani than the Dogon (p < 0.0001) while that of Fc gamma RIIIA (rs396991) occurred less frequently in the Fulani than Dogon (p = 0.0043). The difference in the mutant allele frequency of Fc gamma RIIB (rs1050519) between the two ethnic groups was however not statistically significant (p = 0.064). The mutant allele of rs396991 was associated with high malaria-specific IgG1 and IgG3 in the entire study population and Dogon tribe, p = 0.023 and 0.015, respectively. Parasite burden was lower in carriers of the Fc gamma RIIC (rs3933769) mutant allele than non-carriers in the entire study population (p < 0.0001). Carriers of this allele harboured less than half the parasites found in non-carriers. Conclusion: Differences in the allelic frequencies of rs3933769 and rs396991 among Fulani and Dogon indirectly suggest that these SNPs may influence malaria susceptibility and pathogenesis in the study population. The high frequency of the Fc gamma RIIC (rs3933769) mutant allele in the Fulani and its subsequent association with low parasite burden in the entire study population is noteworthy.
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