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  • Hedengran, Katrine K., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy has limited effect on infant birthweight and umbilical vein endothelial nitric oxide synthase
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6349. ; 97:11, s. 1309-1316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Women who smoke, deliver significantly smaller infants. These infants have reduced levels of the vasodilator endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels in the umbilical vessels, which may reduce fetal growth. Serum cotinine, the degradation product of nicotine, can be used to determine the level of tobacco exposure. Newborns of environmental smokers are suggested to be smaller and shorter in weight, length, and head circumference. eNOS levels have not yet been studied in these infants. We here investigated the existence of a relation between maternal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, eNOS activity, concentration, and birthweight. Material and methods: We included 263 healthy singleton pregnancies categorized into three groups according to measured cotinine levels: 175 nonsmokers, 38 smokers, and 50 environmental smokers. Cotinine was quantified by mass spectrometry with a detection limit of.2 ng/mL; eNOS activity and concentration were measured in endothelial cells (ECs) of the umbilical vein. Results: Infants born to environmental smokers had similar weights to infants born to nonsmokers (47 g heavier, P =.48). Cotinine concentrations were.06/.09/.12 ng/mL (quartiles) in infants born to nonsmokers,.27/.37/.81 ng/mL in infants born to women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, and 43.0/63.8/108.1 ng/mL in infants born to smokers. The eNOS concentration was 1.65 ±.92 ng/106 ECs (mean ± SD) in nonsmokers and 1.71 ± 1.00 ng/106 ECs in environmental smokers. The eNOS activity was 52.0 ± 20.6 pmol l-citrulline/min/106 ECs in nonsmokers and 48.7 ± 19.8 pmol l-citrulline/min/106 ECs in environmental smokers. Conclusions: Infants born to environmental smokers, as judged by umbilical serum cotinine levels close to.2 ng/mL, are not associated with lower birthweight or reduced eNOS activity, or concentration in the fetal vascular bed.
  • Patel, Riyaz S., et al. (författare)
  • Subsequent Event Risk in Individuals With Established Coronary Heart Disease : Design and Rationale of the GENIUS-CHD Consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 2574-8300. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium was established to facilitate discovery and validation of genetic variants and biomarkers for risk of subsequent CHD events, in individuals with established CHD.METHODS: The consortium currently includes 57 studies from 18 countries, recruiting 185 614 participants with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD, or a mixture of both at baseline. All studies collected biological samples and followed-up study participants prospectively for subsequent events.RESULTS: Enrollment into the individual studies took place between 1985 to present day with a duration of follow-up ranging from 9 months to 15 years. Within each study, participants with CHD are predominantly of self-reported European descent (38%-100%), mostly male (44%-91%) with mean ages at recruitment ranging from 40 to 75 years. Initial feasibility analyses, using a federated analysis approach, yielded expected associations between age (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.14-1.16) per 5-year increase, male sex (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.21) and smoking (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.51) with risk of subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction and differing associations with other individual and composite cardiovascular endpoints.CONCLUSIONS: GENIUS-CHD is a global collaboration seeking to elucidate genetic and nongenetic determinants of subsequent event risk in individuals with established CHD, to improve residual risk prediction and identify novel drug targets for secondary prevention. Initial analyses demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of a federated analysis approach. The consortium now plans to initiate and test novel hypotheses as well as supporting replication and validation analyses for other investigators.
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