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Sökning: WFRF:(Sunyer Jordi) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Rosenquist, Aske Hess, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal and postnatal PCB-153 and p,p′ -DDE exposures and behavior scores at 5–9 years of age among children in Greenland and Ukraine
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health Perspectives. - : National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. - 0091-6765. ; 125:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Studies have reported some evidence of adverse effects of organochlorine exposures on child development, but the results have been inconsistent, and few studies have evaluated associations with child behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between prenatal and early-life exposures to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′ -hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p′ -DDE) and behaviors in children between 5 and 9 y of age. METHODS: In the Biopersistent organochlorines in diet and human fertility: Epidemiologic studies of time to pregnancy and semen quality in Inuit and European populations (INUENDO) cohort, consisting of mother–child pairs from Greenland and Ukraine (n = 1,018), maternal serum PCB-153 and p,p′ -DDE concentrations were measured during pregnancy, and cumulative postnatal exposures during the first 12 months after delivery were estimated using a pharmacokinetic model. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and children’s behaviors were dichotomized as abnormal (high) versus normal/borderline for five SDQ subscales and the total difficulties score. RESULTS: The total difficulties score, an overall measure of abnormal behavior, was not clearly associated with pre- or postnatal exposures to PCB-153 or to p,p′ -DDE. However, pooled adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for high conduct problem scores with a doubling of exposure were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.42) and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.41) for pre- and postnatal PCB-153, respectively, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.51) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.51) for pre-and postnatal p,p′ -DDE, respectively. Corresponding ORs for high hyperactivity scores were 1.24 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.62) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.45) for pre- and postnatal PCB-153, respectively, and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.92) and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.73) for pre- and postnatal p,p′ -DDE, respectively. CONCLUSION: Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to p,p′ -DDE and PCB-153 were associated with a higher prevalence of abnormal scores for conduct and hyperactivity at 5–9 y of age in our study population. These findings provide further support for the importance of minimizing organochlorine exposures to young children and to women of childbearing age.
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2.
  • Adam, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE : a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 41:5, s. 38-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4- -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3- -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.
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3.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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4.
  • Boudier, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Data-driven adult asthma phenotypes based on clinical characteristics are associated with asthma outcomes twenty years later
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 74:5, s. 953-963
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundResearch based on cluster analyses led to the identification of particular phenotypes confirming phenotypic heterogeneity of asthma. The long-term clinical course of asthma phenotypes defined by clustering analysis remains unknown, although it is a key aspect to underpin their clinical relevance. We aimed to estimate risk of poor asthma events between asthma clusters identified 20years earlier. MethodsThe study relied on two cohorts of adults with asthma with 20-year follow-up, ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and EGEA (Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma). Regression models were used to compare asthma characteristics (current asthma, asthma exacerbations, asthma control, quality of life, and FEV1) at follow-up and the course of FEV(1)between sevencluster-based asthma phenotypes identified20years earlier. ResultsThe analysis included 1325 adults with ever asthma. For each asthma characteristic assessed at follow-up, the risk for adverse outcomes differed significantly between the seven asthma clusters identified at baseline. As compared with the mildest asthma phenotype, ORs (95% CI) for asthma exacerbations varied from 0.9 (0.4 to 2.0) to 4.0 (2.0 to 7.8) and the regression estimates (95% CI) for FEV1% predicted varied from 0.6 (-3.5 to 4.6) to -9.9 (-14.2 to -5.5) between clusters. Change in FEV1 over time did not differ significantly across clusters. ConclusionOur findings show that the long-term risk for poor asthma outcomes differed between comprehensive adult asthma phenotypes identified 20years earlier, and suggest a strong tracking of asthma activity and impaired lung function over time.
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5.
  • Burte, Emilie, et al. (författare)
  • Association between air pollution and rhinitis incidence in two European cohorts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 115, s. 257-266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between air pollution and rhinitis is not well established.Aim: The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to study the association between modeled air pollution at the subjects' home addresses and self-reported incidence of rhinitis.Methods: We used data from 1533 adults from two multicentre cohorts' studies (EGEA and ECRHS). Rhinitis incidence was defined as reporting rhinitis at the second follow-up (2011 to 2013) but not at the first follow-up (2000 to 2007). Annual exposure to NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 at the participants' home addresses was estimated using land-use regression models developed by the ESCAPE project for the 2009-2010 period. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed using Poisson regression. Pooled analysis, analyses by city and meta-regression testing for heterogeneity were carried out.Results: No association between long-term air pollution exposure and incidence of rhinitis was found (adjusted IRR (aIRR) for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.00 [0.91-1.09], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.88 [0.73-1.04]). Similar results were found in the two-pollutant model (aIRR for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.01 [0.87-1.17], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.87 [0.68-1.08]). Results differed depending on the city, but no regional pattern emerged for any of the pollutants.Conclusions: This study did not find any consistent evidence of an association between long-term air pollution and incident rhinitis.
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6.
  • Bustamante, Mariona, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association meta-analysis of diarrhoeal disease in young children identifies FUT2 locus and provides plausible biological pathways.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human molecular genetics. - 1460-2083. ; 25:18, s. 4127-4142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than a million childhood diarrhoeal episodes occur worldwide each year, and in developed countries a considerable part of them are caused by viral infections. In this study, we aimed to search for genetic variants associated with diarrhoeal disease in young children by meta-analyzing genome-wide association studies, and to elucidate plausible biological mechanisms. The study was conducted in the context of the Early Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium. Data about diarrhoeal disease in two time windows (around 1 year of age and around 2 years of age) was obtained via parental questionnaires, doctor interviews or medical records. Standard quality control and statistical tests were applied to the 1000 Genomes imputed genotypic data. The meta-analysis (N = 5758) followed by replication (N = 3784) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8111874 and diarrhoea at age 1 year. Conditional analysis suggested that the causal variant could be rs601338 (W154X) in the FUT2 gene. Children with the A allele, which results in a truncated FUT2 protein, had lower risk of diarrhoea. FUT2 participates in the production of histo-blood group antigens and has previously been implicated in the susceptibility to infections, including Rotavirus and Norovirus Gene-set enrichment analysis suggested pathways related to the histo-blood group antigen production, and the regulation of ion transport and blood pressure. Among others, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune and neuro-secretory systems were detected as relevant organs. In summary, this genome-wide association meta-analysis suggests the implication of the FUT2 gene in diarrhoeal disease in young children from the general population.
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7.
  • Di Cesare, Mariachiara, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014 : a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 387:10026, s. 1377-1396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries.Methods We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18.5 kg/m(2) [underweight], 18.5 kg/m(2) to <20 kg/m(2), 20 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2), 25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2), 30 kg/m(2) to <35 kg/m(2), 35 kg/m(2) to <40 kg/m(2), = 40 kg/m(2) [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue.Findings We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19.2 million adult participants (9.9 million men and 9.3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21.7 kg/m(2) (95% credible interval 21.3-22.1) in 1975 to 24.2 kg/m(2) (24.0-24.4) in 2014 in men, and from 22.1 kg/m(2) (21.7-22.5) in 1975 to 24.4 kg/m(2) (24.2-24.6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21.4 kg/m(2) in central Africa and south Asia to 29.2 kg/m(2) (28.6-29.8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21.8 kg/m(2) (21.4-22.3) in south Asia to 32.2 kg/m(2) (31.5-32.8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13.8% (10.5-17.4) to 8.8% (7.4-10.3) in men and from 14.6% (11.6-17.9) to 9.7% (8.3-11.1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23.4% (17.8-29.2) in men and 24.0% (18.9-29.3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3.2% (2.4-4.1) in 1975 to 10.8% (9.7-12.0) in 2014 in men, and from 6.4% (5.1-7.8) to 14.9% (13.6-16.1) in women. 2.3% (2.0-2.7) of the world's men and 5.0% (4.4-5.6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI = 35 kg/m(2)). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0.64% (0.46-0.86) in men and 1.6% (1.3-1.9) in women.Interpretation If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world's poorest regions, especially in south Asia.
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8.
  • Dratva, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing : Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Methods Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Results Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95% CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78; 5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16; 2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Conclusion Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.
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9.
  • Felix, Janine F, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human molecular genetics. - 1460-2083. ; 25:2, s. 389-403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index.
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10.
  • Guerra, Stefano, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life and risk factors associated with spirometric restriction
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : The European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 49:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The restrictive spirometric pattern is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality burden. We sought to determine to what extent spirometric restriction is associated with impaired quality of life.We used data from two large population-based European cohorts: 6698 European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) and 6069 Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) adult participants. The restrictive pattern was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥lower limit of normal (LLN) and FVC 1/FVC In both cohorts, the restrictive pattern was associated with heavy smoking, being underweight or obese and the coexistence of respiratory symptoms. In univariate analyses, compared with the normal group, both the restrictive and obstructive pattern had significant Physical Component Summary deficits (−2.77 and −2.08, respectively, in ECRHS; −3.25 and −2.14, respectively, in SAPALDIA; all p-values <0.001). However, in models adjusted for sex, age, education, body mass index, smoking, comorbidities and respiratory symptoms, only the restrictive pattern remained significantly associated with Physical Component Summary deficits (p=0.004 in ECRHS; p=0.001 in SAPALDIA).The restrictive spirometric pattern is associated with deficits in the physical component of quality of life that are partly independent of the presence of respiratory symptoms.
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