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1.
  • Alfredsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting the risk of bleeding during dual antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndromes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Heart. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 103:15, s. 1168-1176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin + a P2Y12 inhibitor is recommended for at least 12 months for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), with shorter durations considered for patients with increased bleeding risk. However, there are no decision support tools available to predict an individual patients bleeding risk during DAPT treatment in the post-ACS setting. Methods To develop a longitudinal bleeding risk prediction model, we analysed 9240 patients with unstable angina/non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trial, who were managed without revascularisation and treated with DAPT for a median of 14.8 months. Results We identified 10 significant baseline predictors of non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO) severe/life-threatening/moderate bleeding: age, sex, weight, NSTEMI (vs unstable angina), angiography performed before randomisation, prior peptic ulcer disease, creatinine, systolic blood pressure, haemoglobin and treatment with beta-blocker. The five significant baseline predictors of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major or minor bleeding included age, sex, angiography performed before randomisation, creatinine and haemoglobin. The models showed good predictive accuracy with Therneaus C-indices: 0.78 (SE=0.024) for the GUSTO model and 0.67 (SE=0.023) for the TIMI model. Internal validation with bootstrapping gave similar C-indices of 0.77 and 0.65, respectively. External validation demonstrated an attenuated C-index for the GUSTO model (0.69) but not the TIMI model (0.68). Conclusions Longitudinal bleeding risks during treatment with DAPT in patients with ACS can be reliably predicted using selected baseline characteristics. The TRILOGY ACS bleeding models can inform riskbenefit considerations regarding the duration of DAPT following ACS.
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2.
  • Armaganijan, Luciana V., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of age on efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome : Insights from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 178, s. 176-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Antithrombotic therapy plays an important role in the treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) but is associated with bleeding risk. Advanced age may modify the relationship between efficacy and safety. Methods Efficacy and safety of vorapaxar (a protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist) was analyzed across ages as a continuous and a categorical variable in the 12,944 patients with NSTE ACS enrolled in the TRACER trial. To evaluate the effect of age, Cox regression models were developed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with the adjustment of other baseline characteristics and randomized treatment for the primary efficacy composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization, and the primary safety composite of moderate or severe Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) bleeding. Results The median age of the population was 64 years (25th, 75th percentiles = 58, 71). Also, 1,791 patients (13.8%) were <= 54 years of age, 4,968 (38.4%) were between 55 and 64 years, 3,979 (30.7%) were between 65 and 74 years, and 2,206 (17.1%) were 75 years or older. Older patients had higher rates of hypertension, renal insufficiency, and previous stroke and worse Killip class. The oldest age group (>= 75 years) had substantially higher 2-year rates of the composite ischemic end point and moderate or severe GUSTO bleeding compared with the youngest age group (<= 54 years). The relationships between treatment assignment (vorapaxar vs placebo) and efficacy outcomes did not vary by age. For the primary efficacy end point, the HRs (95% CIs) comparing vorapaxar and placebo in the 4 age groups were as follows: 1.12 (0.88-1.43), 0.88 (0.76-1.02), 0.89 (0.76-1.04), and 0.88 (0.74-1.06), respectively (P value for interaction = .435). Similar to what was observed for efficacy outcomes, we did not observe any interaction between vorapaxar and age on bleeding outcomes. For the composite of moderate or severe bleeding according to the GUSTO classification, the HRs (95% CIs) comparing vorapaxar and placebo in the 4 age groups were 1.73 (0.89-3.34), 1.39 (1.04-1.86), 1.10 (0.85-1.42), and 1.73 (1.29-2.33), respectively (P value for interaction = .574). Conclusion Older patients had a greater risk for ischemic and bleeding events; however, the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in NSTE ACS were not significantly influenced by age.
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3.
  • Bagai, Akshay, et al. (författare)
  • Magnitude of troponin elevation and long-term clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients treated with and without revascularization.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions. - 1941-7640 .- 1941-7632. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS), elevated troponin levels identify patients at high risk for adverse outcomes; however, it is unknown whether the magnitude of troponin elevation during hospitalization remains predictive of subsequent events in patients undergoing coronary revascularization.METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 12 635 patients with NSTE ACS in the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) study with at least 1 troponin measurement during index hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between peak troponin level (standardized as the ratio of peak troponin value measured during hospitalization and local laboratory upper reference limit [URL]) and revascularization on all-cause mortality at 2 years. Revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft) was performed during index hospitalization in 8586 patients (68.0%); revascularized patients had higher peak troponin ratios (median, 23 versus 9.5× URL). Among patients that did not undergo revascularization, the mortality rate at 2 years increased in a curvilinear fashion with increasing levels of peak troponin. In contrast, the mortality rate at 2 years remained constant irrespective of peak troponin levels among revascularized patients (P for interaction=0.004). This relationship was unchanged after multivariable adjustment.CONCLUSIONS: There is a differential relationship between the magnitude of troponin elevation and long-term mortality in ACS patients treated with and without revascularization. Although prognostically important in patients treated without revascularization, the prognostic implications of peak troponin level seem to be minimal in revascularized patients.
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4.
  • Cornel, Jan H., et al. (författare)
  • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Inhibitors in Combination With Vorapaxar, a Platelet Thrombin Receptor Antagonist, Among Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the TRACER Trial)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiology. - 0002-9149 .- 1879-1913. ; 115:10, s. 1325-1332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the interaction between protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist vorapaxar and concomitant glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes who underwent PCI. In Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome trial, 12,944 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes were randomized to vorapaxar or placebo. Administration of GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors was allowed at the treating physician's discretion. We investigated whether use of GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors modified vorapaxar's effect on non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related bleeding at 7 days and ischemic events at 30 days. In total, 7,455 patients underwent PCI during index hospitalization. Of these, 2,023 patients (27.1%) received inhibitors and 5,432 (72.9%) did not. Vorapaxar was associated with a numerically higher rate of non-CABG-related moderate/severe Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO) bleeding at 7 days compared with placebo in those who did (1.3% vs 1.0%) and did not (0.6% vs 0.4%) receive GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors. Ischemic end point rates at 30 days were not significantly lower with vorapaxar versus placebo. Increased rates of non-CABG GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding were observed in patients who received GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors versus those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43 to 7.35 in placebo arm; adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI 0.62 to 6.61 in vorapaxar arm) and in those who received vorapaxar versus placebo (adjusted HR 1.54, 95% CI 0.36 to 6.56 in the GP IIn/IIIa group; adjusted FIR 1.34, 95% CI 0.44 to 4.07 in the no-GP IIb/IIIa group). No interaction was found between vorapaxar and inhibitor use up to 7 days (P interaction = 0.89) nor at the end of the treatment (P interaction = 0.74); however, the event rate was low. Also, no interaction was observed for efficacy end points after PCI at 30 days or at the end of the treatment. In conclusion, GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor use plus dual antiplatelet therapy in a population with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction planned for PCI was frequent but did not interact with vorapaxar's efficacy or safety. Nonetheless, GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors and vorapaxar were associated with increased bleeding risk, and their combined use may result in additive effects on bleeding rates.
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5.
  • Déry, Jean-Pierre, et al. (författare)
  • Arterial access site and outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with and without vorapaxar
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions. - 1522-1946 .- 1522-726X. ; 88:2, s. 163-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated outcomes associated with transradial vs. transfemoral approaches and vorapaxar in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the TRACER trial.BACKGROUND: Vorapaxar reduces ischemic events but increases the risk of major bleeding.METHODS: We compared 30-day and 2-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, and urgent coronary revascularization) and noncoronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related bleedings in 2,192 transradial and 4,880 transfemoral patients undergoing PCI after adjusting for confounding variables, including propensity for transradial access.RESULTS: Overall, 30-day GUSTO moderate/severe and non-CABG TIMI major/minor bleeding occurred less frequently in transradial (0.9% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.001) vs. transfemoral (1.1% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.005) patients. A similar reduction was seen at 2 years (3.3% vs. 4.7%, P = 0.008; 3.3% vs. 4.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). Transradial was associated with an increased risk of ischemic events at 30 days (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.72; P = 0.004), driven primarily by increased periprocedural myocardial infarctions. At 2 years, rates of MACE were comparable (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.98-1.33; P = 0.096). Although bleeding rates were higher with vorapaxar in transfemoral vs. transradial patients, there was no significant treatment interaction. Also, the access site did not modulate the association between vorapaxar and MACE.CONCLUSIONS: Transradial access was associated with lower bleeding rates and similar long-term ischemic outcomes, suggesting transradial access is safer than transfemoral access among ACS patients receiving potent antiplatelet therapies. Because of the nonrandomized allocation of arterial access, these results should be considered exploratory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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6.
  • Fanaroff, Alexander C., et al. (författare)
  • Frequency, Regional Variation, and Predictors of Undetermined Cause of Death in Cardiometabolic Clinical Trials : A Pooled Analysis of 9259 Deaths in 9 Trials
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 139:7, s. 863-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Modern cardiometabolic clinical trials often include cardiovascular death as a component of a composite primary outcome, requiring central adjudication by a clinical events committee to classify cause of death. However, sometimes the cause of death cannot be determined from available data. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated that this circumstance should occur only rarely, but its prevalence has not been formally assessed. METHODS: Data from 9 global clinical trials (2009-2017) with long-term follow-up and blinded, centrally adjudicated cause of death were used to calculate the proportion of deaths attributed to cardiovascular, noncardiovascular, or undetermined causes by therapeutic area (diabetes mellitus/pre-diabetes mellitus, stable atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation, and acute coronary syndrome), region of patient enrollment, and year of trial manuscript publication. Patient-and trial-level variables associated with undetermined cause of death were identified using a logistic model. RESULTS: Across 127 049 enrolled participants from 9 trials, there were 9259 centrally adjudicated deaths: 5012 (54.1%) attributable to cardiovascular causes, 2800 (30.2%) attributable to noncardiovascular causes, and 1447 (15.6%) attributable to undetermined causes. There was variability in the proportion of deaths ascribed to undetermined causes by trial therapeutic area, region of enrollment, and year of trial manuscript publication. On multivariable analysis, acute coronary syndrome or atrial fibrillation trial (versus atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetes mellitus/pre-diabetes mellitus), longer time from enrollment to death, more recent trial manuscript publication year, enrollment in North America (versus Western Europe), female sex, and older age were associated with greater likelihood of death of undetermined cause. CONCLUSIONS: In 9 cardiometabolic clinical trials with long-term followup, approximately 16% of deaths had undetermined causes. This provides a baseline for quality assessment of clinical trials and informs operational efforts to potentially reduce the frequency of undetermined deaths in future clinical research.
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7.
  • Guimarães, Patrícia O, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical features and outcomes of patients with type 2 myocardial infarction : Insights from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 196, s. 28-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by an imbalance between myocardial blood supply and demand, leading to myocardial ischemia without coronary plaque rupture, but its diagnosis is challenging.METHODS: In the TRACER trial, patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes were included. We aimed to describe provoking factors, cardiac biomarker profiles, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes of patients with type 2 MIs. MI events during trial follow-up were adjudicated by an independent clinical events classification committee (CEC) and were classified according to the Third Universal Definition of MI. Using available source documents retrieved as part of the CEC process, we performed a retrospective chart abstraction to collect details on the type 2 MIs. Cox regression models were used to explore the association between MI type (type 1 or type 2) and cardiovascular death.RESULTS: Overall, 10.3% (n=1327) of TRACER participants had a total of 1579 adjudicated MIs during a median follow-up of 502 days (25th and 75th percentiles [IQR] 349-667). Of all MIs, 5.2% (n=82) were CEC-adjudicated type 2 MIs, occurring in 76 patients. The incidence of type 2 MI was higher in the first month following randomization, after which the distribution became more scattered. The most frequent potential provoking factors for type 2 MIs were tachyarrhythmias (38.2%), anemia/bleeding (21.1%), hypotension/shock (14.5%), and hypertensive emergencies (11.8%). Overall, 36.3% had a troponin increase >10× the upper limit of normal. Coronary angiography was performed in 22.4% (n=17) of patients during hospitalizations due to type 2 MIs. The hazard of cardiovascular death was numerically higher following type 2 MI (vs. no MI, adj. HR 11.82, 95% CI 5.71-24.46; P<.0001) than that of type 1 MI (vs. no MI, adj. HR 8.90, 95% CI 6.93-11.43; P<.0001).CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 MIs were more prevalent in the first month after ACS, were characterized by the presence of triggers and infrequent use of an invasive strategy, and were associated with a high risk of death. Further efforts are needed to better define the role and implications of type 2 MI in both clinical practice and research.
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8.
  • Harskamp, Ralf E., et al. (författare)
  • Use of thienopyridine prior to presentation with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome and association with safety and efficacy of vorapaxar : insights from the TRACER trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care.. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2048-8726. ; 6:2, s. 155-163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Vorapaxar is effective in the prevention of secondary atherothrombotic events, although the efficacy/safety balance appears less favorable in the treatment of patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We hypothesized that patients with NSTE ACS already receiving thienopyridine prior to the ACS event may show differential efficacy/safety effects with vorapaxar vs. placebo added to their standard care. Methods: We studied 12,944 patients from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial with respect to thienopyridine use before admission for the index NSTE ACS event. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, rehospitalization for ischemia, and urgent revascularization. The key secondary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Safety endpoints were bleeding complications. Results: Only 1513 patients (11.7%) were receiving thienopyridine before admission for the index NSTE ACS event. In these patients, Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) moderate/severe bleeding occurred in 5.7% treated with vorapaxar and 5.3% treated with a placebo (hazards ratio (HR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.71); in thienopyridine-naive patients, the rates were 5.7% and 4.1%, respectively (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57; P-int=0.45). GUSTO severe bleeding in the prior thienopyridine group occurred in 0.5% of patients treated with vorapaxar and 1.3% of patients treated with placebo (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.09-1.30); in thienopyridine-naive patients, the rates were 2.0% and 1.0%, respectively (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.36-2.62; P-int=0.01). No interaction was observed between vorapaxar efficacy and prior thienopyridine use on the primary (adjusted P-int=0.53) or key secondary endpoints (P-int=0.61). Conclusions: TRACER was largely conducted in thienopyridine-naive patients with unknown tolerance to multiple antiplatelet treatments. Patients receiving thienopyridine before the index event may have had an attenuated increase in bleeding when adding vorapaxar, whereas concomitantly adding vorapaxar and thienopyridine in naive patients may have uncovered a latent susceptibility to bleeding.
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9.
  • Hess, Connie N., et al. (författare)
  • Differential occurrence, profile, and impact of first recurrent cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 187, s. 194-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trials typically use a composite primary outcome (myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, or cardiovascular death), but differential patient characteristics, timing, and consequences associated with individual component end points as first events have not been well studied. We compared patient characteristics and prognostic significance associated with first cardiovascular events in the post-ACS setting for initially stabilized patients. Methods We combined patient-level data from 4 trials of post-ACS antithrombotic therapies (PLATO, APPRAISE-2, TRACER, and TRILOGY ACS) to characterize the timing of and characteristics associated with first cardiovascular events (MI, stroke, or cardiovascular death). Landmark analysis at 7 days after index ACS presentation was used to focus on spontaneous, postdischarge events that were not confounded by in-hospital procedural complications. Using a competing risk framework, we tested for differential associations between prespecified covariates and the occurrence of nonfatal stroke vs MI as the first event, and we examined subsequent events after the first nonfatal event. Results Among 46,694 patients with a median follow-up of 358 (25th, 75th percentiles 262, 486) days, a first ischemic event occurred in 4,307 patients (9.2%) as follows: MI in 5.8% (n = 2,690), stroke in 1.0% (n = 477), and cardiovascular death in 2.4% (n = 1,140). Older age, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, prior atrial fibrillation, and higher diastolic blood pressure were associated with a significantly greater risk of stroke vs MI, whereas prior percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with a greater risk of MI vs stroke. Second events occurred in 32% of those with a first nonfatal stroke at a median of 13 (3, 59) days after the first event and in 32% of those with a first nonfatal MI at a median of 35 (5, 137) days after the first event. The most common second event was a recurrent MI among those with MI as the first event and cardiovascular death among those with stroke as the first event. Conclusions Approximately 9% of patients experienced a first cardiovascular event in the post-ACS setting during a median follow-up of 1 year. Although the profile and prognostic implications of stroke vs MI as the first nonfatal event differ substantially, approximately one-third of these patients experienced a second event, typically soon after the first event. These findings have implications for improving post-ACS care and influencing the design of future cardiovascular trials.
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10.
  • Hess, Paul L., et al. (författare)
  • Sudden Cardiac Death After Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 1:1, s. 73-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE In the current therapeutic era, the risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) has not been characterized completely. OBJECTIVE To determine the cumulative incidence of SCD during long-term follow-up after NSTE ACS, to develop a risk model and risk score for SCD after NSTE ACS, and to assess the association between recurrent events after the initial ACS presentation and the risk for SCD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This pooled cohort analysis merged individual data from 48 286 participants in 4 trials: the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events 2 (APPRAISE-2), Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO), Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER), and Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trials. The cumulative incidence of SCD and cardiovascular death was examined according to time after NSTE ACS. Using competing risk and Cox proportional hazards models, clinical factors at baseline and after the index event that were associated with SCD after NSTE ACS were identified. Baseline factors were used to develop a risk model. Data were analyzed from January 2, 2014, to December 11, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Sudden cardiac death. RESULTS Of the initial 48 286 patients, 37 555 patients were enrolled after NSTE ACS (67.4% men; 32.6% women; median [interquartile range] age, 65 [57-72] years). Among these, 2109 deaths occurred after a median follow-up of 12.1 months. Of 1640 cardiovascular deaths, 513 (31.3%) were SCD. At 6, 18, and 30 months, the cumulative incidence estimates of SCD were 0.79%, 1.65%, and 2.37%, respectively. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, older age, diabetes mellitus, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher heart rate, prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, Asian race, male sex, and high Killip class were significantly associated with SCD. A model developed to calculate the risk for SCD in trials with systematic collection of left ventricular ejection fraction had a C index of 0.77. An integer-based score was developed from this model and yielded a calculated SCD probability ranging from 0.1% to 56.7%(C statistic, 0.75). In a multivariable model that included time-dependent clinical events occurring after the index hospitalization for ACS, SCD was associated with recurrentmyocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR], 2.95; 95% CI, 2.29-3.80; P <.001) and any hospitalization (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.98-3.03; P <.001), whereas coronary revascularization had a negative relationship with SCD (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.98; P =.03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In the current therapeutic era, SCD accounts for about one-third of cardiovascular deaths after NSTE ACS. Risk stratification can be performed with good accuracy using commonly collected clinical variables. Clinical events occurring after the index hospitalization are underappreciated but important risk factors.
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