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Sökning: WFRF:(Van Damme Philip) > (2020-2021)

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  • Moisse, Matthieu, et al. (författare)
  • The Effect of SMN Gene Dosage on ALS Risk and Disease Severity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The role of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unclear, with several conflicting reports. A decisive result on this topic is needed, given that treatment options are available now for SMN deficiency.Methods: In this largest multicenter case control study to evaluate the effect of SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers in ALS, we used whole genome sequencing data from Project MinE data freeze 2. SMN copy numbers of 6,375 patients with ALS and 2,412 controls were called from whole genome sequencing data, and the reliability of the calls was tested with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification data.Results: The copy number distribution of SMN1 and SMN2 between cases and controls did not show any statistical differences (binomial multivariate logistic regression SMN1 p = 0.54 and SMN2 p = 0.49). In addition, the copy number of SMN did not associate with patient survival (Royston-Parmar; SMN1 p = 0.78 and SMN2 p = 0.23) or age at onset (Royston-Parmar; SMN1 p = 0.75 and SMN2 p = 0.63).Interpretation: In our well-powered study, there was no association of SMN1 or SMN2 copy numbers with the risk of ALS or ALS disease severity. This suggests that changing SMN protein levels in the physiological range may not modify ALS disease course. This is an important finding in the light of emerging therapies targeted at SMN deficiencies.
  • Månberg, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Altered perivascular fibroblast activity precedes ALS disease onset
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1078-8956 .- 1546-170X. ; 27:4, s. 640-646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Apart from well-defined factors in neuronal cells1, only a few reports consider that the variability of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression can depend on less-defined contributions from glia2,3 and blood vessels4. In this study we use an expression-weighted cell-type enrichment method to infer cell activity in spinal cord samples from patients with sporadic ALS and mouse models of this disease. Here we report that patients with sporadic ALS present cell activity patterns consistent with two mouse models in which enrichments of vascular cell genes preceded microglial response. Notably, during the presymptomatic stage, perivascular fibroblast cells showed the strongest gene enrichments, and their marker proteins SPP1 and COL6A1 accumulated in enlarged perivascular spaces in patients with sporadic ALS. Moreover, in plasma of 574 patients with ALS from four independent cohorts, increased levels of SPP1 at disease diagnosis repeatedly predicted shorter survival with stronger effect than the established risk factors of bulbar onset or neurofilament levels in cerebrospinal fluid. We propose that the activity of the recently discovered perivascular fibroblast can predict survival of patients with ALS and provide a new conceptual framework to re-evaluate definitions of ALS etiology.
  • Miller, Timothy, et al. (författare)
  • Phase 1-2 Trial of Antisense Oligonucleotide Tofersen for SOD1 ALS
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 383:2, s. 109-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tofersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that mediates the degradation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) messenger RNA to reduce SOD1 protein synthesis. Intrathecal administration of tofersen is being studied for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to SOD1 mutations.Methods: We conducted a phase 1-2 ascending-dose trial evaluating tofersen in adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations. In each dose cohort (20, 40, 60, or 100 mg), participants were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive five doses of tofersen or placebo, administered intrathecally for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were safety and pharmacokinetics. The secondary outcome was the change from baseline in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SOD1 concentration at day 85. Clinical function and vital capacity were measured.Results: A total of 50 participants underwent randomization and were included in the analyses; 48 participants received all five planned doses. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were observed in most participants. Elevations in CSF white-cell count and protein were reported as adverse events in 4 and 5 participants, respectively, who received tofersen. Among participants who received tofersen, one died from pulmonary embolus on day 137, and one from respiratory failure on day 152; one participant in the placebo group died from respiratory failure on day 52. The difference at day 85 in the change from baseline in the CSF SOD1 concentration between the tofersen groups and the placebo group was 2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -18 to 27) for the 20-mg dose, -25 percentage points (95% CI, -40 to -5) for the 40-mg dose, -19 percentage points (95% CI, -35 to 2) for the 60-mg dose, and -33 percentage points (95% CI, -47 to -16) for the 100-mg dose.Conclusions: In adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations, CSF SOD1 concentrations decreased at the highest concentration of tofersen administered intrathecally over a period of 12 weeks. CSF pleocytosis occurred in some participants receiving tofersen. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were observed in most participants. (Funded by Biogen; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02623699; EudraCT number, 2015-004098-33.)In a phase 1-2 dose-escalation trial involving adults with ALS due to SOD1 mutations who received intrathecal tofersen (an antisense oligonucleotide) or placebo, the levels of mutant SOD1 in the CSF were 33 percentage points lower in the highest-dose tofersen group than in the placebo group.
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