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Sökning: WFRF:(Venturini C) > (2020-2021)

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  • Gaccioli, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Fetal inheritance of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 predisposes the mother to pre-eclampsia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Microbiology. - : Springer Nature. - 2058-5276. ; 5:7, s. 901-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pre-eclampsia (typically characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy) represents a major determinant of the global burden of disease1,2. Its pathophysiology involves placental dysfunction, but the mechanism is unclear. Viral infection can cause organ dysfunction, but its role in placentally related disorders of human pregnancy is unknown3. We addressed this using RNA sequencing metagenomics4-6 of placental samples from normal and complicated pregnancies. Here, we show that human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6, A or B) RNA was detected in 6.1% of cases of pre-eclampsia and 2.2% of other pregnancies. Fetal genotyping demonstrated that 70% of samples with HHV-6 RNA in the placenta exhibited inherited, chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). We genotyped 467 pre-eclampsia cases and 3,854 controls and found an excess of iciHHV-6 in the cases (odds ratio of 2.8, 95% confidence intervals of 1.4-5.6, P = 0.008). We validated this finding by comparing iciHHV-6 in a further 740 cases with controls from large-scale population studies (odds ratio of 2.5, 95% confidence intervals of 1.4-4.4, P = 0.0013). We conclude that iciHHV-6 results in the transcription of viral RNA in the human placenta and predisposes the mother to pre-eclampsia.
  • Albrecht, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield : a quantitative synthesis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Ecology Letters. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1461-023X .- 1461-0248. ; 23:10, s. 1488-1498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in adjacent fields by 16% on average. However, effects on crop pollination and yield were more variable. Our synthesis identifies several important drivers of variability in effectiveness of plantings: pollination services declined exponentially with distance from plantings, and perennial and older flower strips with higher flowering plant diversity enhanced pollination more effectively. These findings provide promising pathways to optimise floral plantings to more effectively contribute to ecosystem service delivery and ecological intensification of agriculture in the future.
  • Aswad, Amr, et al. (författare)
  • Evolutionary history of endogenous Human Herpesvirus 6 reflects human migration out of Africa
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 38:1, s. 96-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6) can integrate into the germline, and as a result about 70 million people harbour the genome of one of these viruses in every cell of their body. Until now, it has been largely unknown if i) these integrations are ancient, ii) if they still occur, and iii) whether circulating virus strains differ from integrated ones. Here we used next generation sequencing and mining of public human genome datasets to generate the largest and most diverse collection of circulating and integrated HHV-6 genomes studied to date. In genomes of geographically dispersed, only distantly-related people, we identified clades of integrated viruses that originated from a single ancestral event, confirming this with fluorescent in situ hybridization to directly observe the integration locus. In contrast to HHV-6B, circulating and integrated HHV-6A sequences form distinct clades, arguing against ongoing integration of circulating HHV-6A or "reactivation" of integrated HHV-6A. Taken together, our study provides the first comprehensive picture of the evolution of HHV-6, and reveals that integration of heritable HHV-6 has occurred since the time of, if not before, human migrations out of Africa.
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