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Sökning: WFRF:(Wallace P.) > (2015-2019)

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61.
  • Weiner, D. J., et al. (författare)
  • Polygenic transmission disequilibrium confirms that common and rare variation act additively to create risk for autism spectrum disorders
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 49:7, s. 978-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk is influenced by common polygenic and de novo variation. We aimed to clarify the influence of polygenic risk for ASD and to identify subgroups of ASD cases, including those with strongly acting de novo variants, in which polygenic risk is relevant. Using a novel approach called the polygenic transmission disequilibrium test and data from 6,454 families with a child with ASD, we show that polygenic risk for ASD, schizophrenia, and greater educational attainment is over-transmitted to children with ASD. These findings hold independent of proband IQ. We find that polygenic variation contributes additively to risk in ASD cases who carry a strongly acting de novo variant. Lastly, we show that elements of polygenic risk are independent and differ in their relationship with phenotype. These results confirm that the genetic influences on ASD are additive and suggest that they create risk through at least partially distinct etiologic pathways.
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62.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for astrophysical tau neutrinos in three years of IceCube data
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 1550-7998 .- 1550-2368. ; 93:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has observed a diffuse flux of TeV-PeVastrophysical neutrinos at 5.7 sigma significance from an all-flavor search. The direct detection of tau neutrinos in this flux has yet to occur. Tau neutrinos become distinguishable from other flavors in IceCube at energies above a few hundred TeV, when the cascade from the tau neutrino charged current interaction becomes resolvable from the cascade from the tau lepton decay. This paper presents results from the first dedicated search for tau neutrinos with energies between 214 TeV and 72 PeV in the full IceCube detector. The analysis searches for IceCube optical sensors that observe two separate pulses in a single event-one from the tau neutrino interaction and a second from the tau decay. No candidate events were observed in three years of IceCube data. For the first time, a differential upper limit on astrophysical tau neutrinos is derived around the PeV energy region, which is nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower in energy than previous limits from dedicated tau neutrino searches.
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63.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Searches for relativistic magnetic monopoles in IceCube
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 76:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic (nu >= 0.76 c) and mildly relativistic (nu >= 0.51 c) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/2009 and 2011/2012, respectively. No monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above 0.51 c the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of 1.55 x 10(-18) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1). This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits.
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64.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • The Search For Transient Astrophysical Neutrino Emission With Icecube-Deepcore
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 816:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of a search for astrophysical sources of brief transient neutrino emission using IceCube and DeepCore data acquired between 2012 May 15 and 2013 April 30. While the search methods employed in this analysis are similar to those used in previous IceCube point source searches, the data set being examined consists of a sample of predominantly sub-TeV muon-neutrinos from the Northern Sky (-5 degrees < delta < 90 degrees) obtained through a novel event selection method. This search represents a first attempt by IceCube to identify astrophysical neutrino sources in this relatively unexplored energy range. The reconstructed direction and time of arrival of neutrino events are used to search for any significant self-correlation in the data set. The data revealed no significant source of transient neutrino emission. This result has been used to construct limits at timescales ranging from roughly 1 s to 10 days for generic soft-spectra transients. We also present limits on a specific model of neutrino emission from soft jets in core-collapse supernovae.
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65.
  • Bousquet, J, et al. (författare)
  • MASK 2017 : ARIA digitally-enabled, integrated, person-centred care for rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity using real-world-evidence.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Translational Allergy. - 2045-7022 .- 2045-7022. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • mHealth, such as apps running on consumer smart devices is becoming increasingly popular and has the potential to profoundly affect healthcare and health outcomes. However, it may be disruptive and results achieved are not always reaching the goals. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) has evolved from a guideline using the best evidence-based approach to care pathways suited to real-life using mobile technology in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma multimorbidity. Patients largely use over-the-counter medications dispensed in pharmacies. Shared decision making centered around the patient and based on self-management should be the norm. Mobile Airways Sentinel networK (MASK), the Phase 3 ARIA initiative, is based on the freely available MASK app (the Allergy Diary, Android and iOS platforms). MASK is available in 16 languages and deployed in 23 countries. The present paper provides an overview of the methods used in MASK and the key results obtained to date. These include a novel phenotypic characterization of the patients, confirmation of the impact of allergic rhinitis on work productivity and treatment patterns in real life. Most patients appear to self-medicate, are often non-adherent and do not follow guidelines. Moreover, the Allergy Diary is able to distinguish between AR medications. The potential usefulness of MASK will be further explored by POLLAR (Impact of Air Pollution on Asthma and Rhinitis), a new Horizon 2020 project using the Allergy Diary.
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66.
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67.
  • Di Angelantonio, E., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 314:1, s. 52-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing. OBJECTIVE: To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using individual participant data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (689,300 participants; 91 cohorts; years of baseline surveys: 1960-2007; latest mortality follow-up: April 2013; 128,843 deaths). The HRs from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration were compared with those from the UK Biobank (499,808 participants; years of baseline surveys: 2006-2010; latest mortality follow-up: November 2013; 7995 deaths). Cumulative survival was estimated by applying calculated age-specific HRs for mortality to contemporary US age-specific death rates. EXPOSURES: A history of 2 or more of the following: diabetes mellitus, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All-cause mortality and estimated reductions in life expectancy. RESULTS: In participants in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration without a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI at baseline (reference group), the all-cause mortality rate adjusted to the age of 60 years was 6.8 per 1000 person-years. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 15.6 in participants with a history of diabetes, 16.1 in those with stroke, 16.8 in those with MI, 32.0 in those with both diabetes and MI, 32.5 in those with both diabetes and stroke, 32.8 in those with both stroke and MI, and 59.5 in those with diabetes, stroke, and MI. Compared with the reference group, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.8-2.0) in participants with a history of diabetes, 2.1 (95% CI, 2.0-2.2) in those with stroke, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.9-2.2) in those with MI, 3.7 (95% CI, 3.3-4.1) in those with both diabetes and MI, 3.8 (95% CI, 3.5-4.2) in those with both diabetes and stroke, 3.5 (95% CI, 3.1-4.0) in those with both stroke and MI, and 6.9 (95% CI, 5.7-8.3) in those with diabetes, stroke, and MI. The HRs from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration were similar to those from the more recently recruited UK Biobank. The HRs were little changed after further adjustment for markers of established intermediate pathways (eg, levels of lipids and blood pressure) and lifestyle factors (eg, smoking, diet). At the age of 60 years, a history of any 2 of these conditions was associated with 12 years of reduced life expectancy and a history of all 3 of these conditions was associated with 15 years of reduced life expectancy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Mortality associated with a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI was similar for each condition. Because any combination of these conditions was associated with multiplicative mortality risk, life expectancy was substantially lower in people with multimorbidity.
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68.
  • Anderson, P., et al. (författare)
  • Improving the delivery of brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care: outcome results of the Optimizing Delivery of Health Care Intervention (ODHIN) five-country cluster randomized factorial trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 1360-0443 .- 0965-2140. ; 111:11, s. 1935-1945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To test if training and support, financial reimbursement and option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice (eBI) can increase primary health-care providers' delivery of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers. Design: Cluster randomized factorial trial with 12-week implementation and measurement period. Setting: Primary health-care units (PHCU) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Participants: A total of 120 PHCU, 24 in each of Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. Interventions: PHCUs were randomized to one of eight groups: care as usual, training and support (TS), financial reimbursement (FR) and eBI; paired combinations of TS, FR and eBI, and all of FR, TS and eBI. Measurements: The primary outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adult (age 18+ years) patients screened during a 12-week implementation period. Secondary outcome measures were proportion of screen-positive patients advised; and proportion of consulting adult patients given an intervention (screening and advice to screen-positives) during the same 12-week implementation period. Findings: During a 4-week baseline measurement period, the proportion of consulting adult patients who were screened for their alcohol consumption was 0.059 per PHCU (95% CI 0.034 to 0.084). Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the logged proportion screened during the 12-week implementation period was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.13–1.95) in PHCU that received TS versus PHCU that did not receive TS; for FR, the ratio was 2.00 (95% CI = 1.56–2.56). The option of referral to eBI did not lead to a higher proportion of patients screened. The ratio for TS plus FR was 2.34 (95% CI = 1.77–3.10), and the ratio for TS plus FR plus eBI was1.68 (95% CI = 1.11–2.53). Conclusions: Providing primary health-care units with training, support and financial reimbursement for delivering Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers increases screening for alcohol consumption. Providing primary health-care units with the option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice does not appear to increase screening for alcohol consumption. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction
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69.
  • Bendtsen, P., et al. (författare)
  • Professional's Attitudes Do Not Influence Screening and Brief Interventions Rates for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Results from ODHIN Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B - Oxford Open Option D. - 0735-0414 .- 1464-3502. ; 50:4, s. 430-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine the relation between existing levels of alcohol screening and brief intervention rates in five European jurisdictions and role security and therapeutic commitment by the participating primary healthcare professionals. Health care professionals consisting of, 409 GPs, 282 nurses and 55 other staff including psychologists, social workers and nurse aids from 120 primary health care centres participated in a cross-sectional 4-week survey. The participants registered all screening and brief intervention activities as part of their normal routine. The participants also completed the Shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ), which measure role security and therapeutic commitment. The only significant but small relationship was found between role security and screening rate in a multilevel logistic regression analysis adjusted for occupation of the provider, number of eligible patients and the random effects of jurisdictions and primary health care units (PHCU). No significant relationship was found between role security and brief intervention rate nor between therapeutic commitment and screening rate/brief intervention rate. The proportion of patients screened varied across jurisdictions between 2 and 10%. The findings show that the studied factors (role security and therapeutic commitment) are not of great importance for alcohol screening and BI rates. Given the fact that screening and brief intervention implementation rate has not changed much in the last decade in spite of increased policy emphasis, training initiatives and more research being published, this raises a question about what else is needed to enhance implementation.
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70.
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