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Sökning: WFRF:(Wallentin Lars C. 1943 ) > (2020-2022)

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1.
  • Winkler, Thomas W., et al. (författare)
  • Differential and shared genetic effects on kidney function between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : NATURE PORTFOLIO. - 2399-3642. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large-scale GWAS provides insight on diabetes-dependent genetic effects on the glomerular filtration rate, a common metric to monitor kidney health in disease. Reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can progress to kidney failure. Risk factors include genetics and diabetes mellitus (DM), but little is known about their interaction. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses for estimated GFR based on serum creatinine (eGFR), separately for individuals with or without DM (n(DM) = 178,691, n(noDM) = 1,296,113). Our genome-wide searches identified (i) seven eGFR loci with significant DM/noDM-difference, (ii) four additional novel loci with suggestive difference and (iii) 28 further novel loci (including CUBN) by allowing for potential difference. GWAS on eGFR among DM individuals identified 2 known and 27 potentially responsible loci for diabetic kidney disease. Gene prioritization highlighted 18 genes that may inform reno-protective drug development. We highlight the existence of DM-only and noDM-only effects, which can inform about the target group, if respective genes are advanced as drug targets. Largely shared effects suggest that most drug interventions to alter eGFR should be effective in DM and noDM.
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2.
  • Kapelios, Chris J, et al. (författare)
  • Association between loop diuretic dose changes and outcomes in chronic heart failure : observations from the ESC-EORP Heart Failure Long-Term Registry.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Heart Failure. - : Wiley. - 1388-9842 .- 1879-0844. ; 22:8, s. 1424-1437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Guidelines recommend down-titration of loop diuretics (LD) once euvolaemia is achieved. In outpatients with heart failure (HF), we investigated LD dose changes in daily cardiology practice, agreement with guideline recommendations, predictors of successful LD down-titration and association between dose changes and outcomes.METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 8130 HF patients from the ESC-EORP Heart Failure Long-Term Registry. Among patients who had dose decreased, successful decrease was defined as the decrease not followed by death, HF hospitalization, New York Heart Association class deterioration, or subsequent increase in LD dose. Mean age was 66 ± 13 years, 71% men, 62% HF with reduced ejection fraction, 19% HF with mid-range ejection fraction, 19% HF with preserved ejection fraction. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] LD dose was 40 (25-80) mg. LD dose was increased in 16%, decreased in 8.3% and unchanged in 76%. Median (IQR) follow-up was 372 (363-419) days. Diuretic dose increase (vs. no change) was associated with HF death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.08; P = 0.008] and nominally with cardiovascular death (HR 1.25, 95% CI 0.96-1.63; P = 0.103). Decrease of diuretic dose (vs. no change) was associated with nominally lower HF (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.33-1.07; P = 0.083) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38-1.00; P = 0.052). Among patients who had LD dose decreased, systolic blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.11 per 10 mmHg increase, 95% CI 1.01-1.22; P = 0.032], and absence of (i) sleep apnoea (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.69; P = 0.008), (ii) peripheral congestion (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80; P = 0.005), and (iii) moderate/severe mitral regurgitation (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.87; P = 0.008) were independently associated with successful decrease.CONCLUSION: Diuretic dose was unchanged in 76% and decreased in 8.3% of outpatients with chronic HF. LD dose increase was associated with worse outcomes, while the LD dose decrease group showed a trend for better outcomes compared with the no-change group. Higher systolic blood pressure, and absence of (i) sleep apnoea, (ii) peripheral congestion, and (iii) moderate/severe mitral regurgitation were independently associated with successful dose decrease.
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3.
  • Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Factor V Leiden With Subsequent Atherothrombotic Events A GENIUS-CHD Study of Individual Participant Data
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 142:6, s. 546-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies examining the role of factor V Leiden among patients at higher risk of atherothrombotic events, such as those with established coronary heart disease (CHD), are lacking. Given that coagulation is involved in the thrombus formation stage on atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we hypothesized that factor V Leiden may be a stronger risk factor for atherothrombotic events in patients with established CHD. Methods: We performed an individual-level meta-analysis including 25 prospective studies (18 cohorts, 3 case-cohorts, 4 randomized trials) from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) consortium involving patients with established CHD at baseline. Participating studies genotyped factor V Leiden status and shared risk estimates for the outcomes of interest using a centrally developed statistical code with harmonized definitions across studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain age- and sex-adjusted estimates. The obtained estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. The primary outcome was composite of myocardial infarction and CHD death. Secondary outcomes included any stroke, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Results: The studies included 69 681 individuals of whom 3190 (4.6%) were either heterozygous or homozygous (n=47) carriers of factor V Leiden. Median follow-up per study ranged from 1.0 to 10.6 years. A total of 20 studies with 61 147 participants and 6849 events contributed to analyses of the primary outcome. Factor V Leiden was not associated with the combined outcome of myocardial infarction and CHD death (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.92-1.16];I-2=28%;P-heterogeneity=0.12). Subgroup analysis according to baseline characteristics or strata of traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show relevant differences. Similarly, risk estimates for the secondary outcomes including stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were also close to identity. Conclusions: Factor V Leiden was not associated with increased risk of subsequent atherothrombotic events and mortality in high-risk participants with established and treated CHD. Routine assessment of factor V Leiden status is unlikely to improve atherothrombotic events risk stratification in this population.
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4.
  • Carnicelli, Anthony P, et al. (författare)
  • Individual Patient Data from the Pivotal Randomized Controlled Trials of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (COMBINE AF) : Design and Rationale
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; Mar:233, s. 48-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are the preferred class of medications for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation unless contraindications exist. Five large, international, randomized, controlled trials of NOACs versus either warfarin or aspirin have been completed to date.DESIGN: COMBINE AF incorporates de-identified individual patient data from 77,282 patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke randomized to NOAC, warfarin, or aspirin from 5 pivotal randomized controlled trials. All patients randomized in the constituent trials are included. Variables common to ≥3 of the constituent trials are included in the master database. Individual trial data sets from the 4 coordinating centers were combined at the Duke Clinical Research Institute. The final database will be securely shared with the 4 academic coordinating centers. The combined master database will be used to perform statistical analyses aimed at better understanding underlying risk factors and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants, with a special focus on patient subgroups and uncommon outcomes. The initial analysis from COMBINE AF will be a network meta-analysis investigating the relative efficacy and safety of pooled higher-dose NOACs versus pooled lower-dose NOACs versus warfarin with respect to multiple time-to-event efficacy and safety outcomes. COMBINE AF is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020178771).CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, COMBINE AF provides a rich and robust database consisting of individual patient data and will offer opportunities to investigate oral anticoagulants across many patient subgroups. Data sharing and collaboration across academic institutions and investigators will serve as overarching themes.
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5.
  • Gorski, Mathias, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis uncovers genome-wide significant variants for rapid kidney function decline
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Kidney International. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0085-2538 .- 1523-1755. ; 99:4, s. 926-939
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m2/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.
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6.
  • Gregersen, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Legumain in Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 9:17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The cysteine protease legumain is increased in patients with atherosclerosis, but its causal role in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease is still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of legumain with clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS : Serum levels of legumain were analyzed in 4883 patients with acute coronary syndrome from a substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Levels were analyzed at admission and after 1 month follow-up. Associations between legumain and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and its individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. At baseline, a 50% increase in legumain level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.21),P=0.0018, for the primary composite end point, adjusted for randomized treatment. The association remained significant after adjustment for important clinical and demographic variables (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19;P=0.013) but not in the fully adjusted model. Legumain levels at 1 month were not associated with the composite end point but were negatively associated with stroke (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88;P=0.0069), including in the fully adjusted model (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.88;P=0.0114). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline legumain was associated with the primary outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but not in the fully adjusted model. The association between high levels of legumain at 1 month and decreased occurrence of stroke could be of interest from a mechanistic point of view, illustrating the potential dual role of legumain during atherogenesis and acute coronary syndrome. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00391872.
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7.
  • Kloosterman, Marielle, et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics and outcomes of atrial fibrillation in patients without traditional risk factors : an RE-LY AF registry analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Europace. - 1099-5129 .- 1532-2092. ; 22:6, s. 870-877
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Data on patient characteristics, prevalence, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients without traditional risk factors, often labelled 'lone AF', are sparse. Methods and results: The RE-LY AF registry included 15 400 individuals who presented to emergency departments with AF in 47 countries. This analysis focused on patients without traditional risk factors, including age >= 60years, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, congenital heart disease, pulmonary disease, valve heart disease, hyperthyroidism, and prior cardiac surgery. Patients without traditional risk factors were compared with age- and region-matched controls with traditional risk factors (1:3 fashion). In 796 (5%) patients, no traditional risk factors were present. However, 98% (779/796) had less-established or borderline risk factors, including borderline hypertension (130-140/80-90mmHg; 47%), chronic kidney disease (eGFR<60mL/min; 57%), obesity (body mass index>30; 19%), diabetes (5%), excessive alcohol intake (>14 units/week; 4%), and smoking (25%). Compared with patients with traditional risk factors (n=2388), patients without traditional risk factors were more often men (74% vs. 59%, P<0.001) had paroxysmal AF (55% vs. 37%, P<0.001) and less AF persistence after 1 year (21% vs. 49%, P<0.001). Furthermore, 1-year stroke occurrence rate (0.6% vs. 2.0%, P=0.013) and heart failure hospitalizations (0.9% vs. 12.5%, P<0.001) were lower. However, risk of AF-related re-hospitalization was similar (18% vs. 21%, P=0.09). Conclusion: Almost all patients without traditionally defined AF risk factors have less-established or borderline risk factors. These patients have a favourable 1-year prognosis, but risk of AF-related re-hospitalization remains high. Greater emphasis should be placed on recognition and management of less-established or borderline risk factors.
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8.
  • Kontny, Frederic, et al. (författare)
  • Pentraxin-3 vs C-reactive protein and other prognostic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome : A substudy of the Platelet Inhibition and Patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care.. - 2048-8726. ; 9:4, s. 313-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: We investigated the dynamics, associations with patient characteristics, other biomarkers, and clinical outcomes of pentraxin 3 in acute coronary syndrome.METHODS AND RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, pentraxin 3 measured in 5154 patients randomised in the Platelet Inhibition and Patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872) was compared with leukocytes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, cystatin C, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T and growth differentiation factor 15 concerning prediction of clinical outcome. Pentraxin 3 peaked earlier than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and was more strongly correlated with N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T than with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The frequency of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke by quartiles of pentraxin 3 at admission was 6.1%, 7.3%, 9.7% and 10.7%, respectively ( p<0.0001). The hazard ratio per 50% increase of pentraxin 3 was 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.19), p<0.0001. This association remained significant after stepwise adjustments for leukocytes/high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (1.09 (1.02-1.15)), p=0.009, interleukin-6 (1.07 (1.01-1.14)), p=0.026, and cystatin C (1.07 (1.00-1.13)), p=0.044, but not after adjustment for N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T and growth differentiation factor 15. Admission pentraxin 3 was also associated with several of the individual endpoint components (cardiovascular death/spontaneous myocardial infarction; p=0.008, cardiovascular death; p=0.026, and spontaneous myocardial infarction; p=0.017), but not with stroke. Pentraxin 3 measured in the chronic phase (i.e. at one month) was still predictive of the composite endpoint in univariate analysis (1.12 (1.04-1.20) per 50% increase) p=0.0024, but not after adjustment for the other biomarkers.CONCLUSION: Admission level of pentraxin 3 is a modestly stronger predictor than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, but not than N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide or high-sensitivity troponin T, concerning cardiovascular outcome in acute coronary syndrome. Pentraxin 3 is more strongly correlated with N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T than with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.
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9.
  • Nelson, Thomas A, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effect of clopidogrel and ticagrelor on leukocyte count in relation to patient characteristics, biomarkers and genotype : a PLATO substudy.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Platelets. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0953-7104 .- 1369-1635. ; 33:3, s. 425-431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inflammation plays a key role in cardiovascular disease by contributing to atherothrombosis. The PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study (NCT00391872) compared ticagrelor to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and demonstrated fewer cardiovascular events with ticagrelor but lower white blood cell counts (WBC) with clopidogrel. In this further analysis of the PLATO biomarker substudy, we assessed associations between WBC and clinical characteristics, biomarker levels, and CYP2C19 polymorphisms.On-treatment mean (SD) WBC in the clopidogrel group was mildly reduced at each stage of follow-up compared with either the ticagrelor group (1 month: 7.27 (2.1) and 7.67 (2.23) x109/L for clopidogrel and ticagrelor, respectively; p < .001) or following cessation of clopidogrel (7.23 (1.97) x109/L, at 6 months vs 7.56 (2.28) x109/L after treatment cessation; P < .001). This occurred independently of baseline biomarkers and CYP2C19 genotype (where known). Adjusting for clinical characteristics and other biomarkers, no significant interaction was detected between clinical risk factors and the observed effect of clopidogrel on WBC.Clopidogrel weakly suppresses WBC, independent of clinical characteristics, baseline inflammatory biomarker levels, and CYP2C19 genotype. Further work is required to determine the mechanism for this effect and whether it contributes to clopidogrel's efficacy as well as therapeutic interaction with anti-inflammatory drugs.
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10.
  • Rosjo, H., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac troponin is associated with cardiac outcomes in men and women with atrial fibrillation, insights from the ARISTOTLE trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : WILEY. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 288:2, s. 248-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) concentrations provide strong prognostic information in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether the associations between cardiac troponin concentrations and mortality and morbidity differ by sex is not known. Objectives To assess whether men and women have different concentrations and prognostic value of cTnT and cTnI measurements in anticoagulated patients with AF. Methods cTnT and cTnI concentrations were measured with high-sensitivity (hs) assays in EDTA plasma samples obtained from the multicentre ARISTOTLE trial, which randomized patients with AF and at least one risk factor for stroke or systemic embolic event to warfarin or apixaban. Patients were stratified according to sex and the associations between hs-troponin concentrations, and all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolic event and major bleeding were assessed in multivariable regression models. Results We found higher cardiac troponin concentrations in men (n = 9649) compared to women (n = 5331), both for hs-cTnT (median 11.8 [Q1-3 8.1-18.0] vs. 9.6 [6.7-14.3] ng L-1, P < 0.001) and hs-cTnI (5.8 [3.4-10.8] vs. 4.9 [3.1-8.8] ng L-1, P < 0.001). Adjusting for baseline demographics, comorbidities and medications, men still had significantly higher hs-troponin concentrations than women. C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were higher in female patients. Both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI concentrations were associated with all clinical outcomes similarly in men and women (p-value for interaction >0.05 for all end-points). Conclusion Men have higher hs-troponin concentrations than women in AF. Regardless of sex, hs-troponin concentrations remain similarly associated with adverse clinical outcomes in anticoagulated patients with AF.
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