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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Weber Markus) srt2:(2020-2021)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Weber Markus) > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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2.
  • Grasby, KL, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 367:6484, s. 1340-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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3.
  • Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Increased estrogen to androgen ratio enhances immunoglobulin levels and impairs B cell function in male mice.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex steroids, such as estrogens and androgens, are important regulators of the humoral immune response. Studies in female mice have demonstrated that alteration of circulating estrogen concentration regulates antibody-mediated immunity. As males have normally little endogenous estrogen, we hypothesized that in males high estrogens and low androgens affect the immune system and enhance the allergic inflammatory response. Here, we studied transgenic male mice expressing human aromatase (AROM+). These animals have a high circulating estrogen to androgen ratio (E/A), causing female traits such as gynecomastia. We found that AROM+ male mice had significantly higher plasma immunoglobulin levels, particularly IgE. Flow cytometry analyses of splenocytes revealed changes in mature/immature B cell ratio together with a transcriptional upregulation of the Igh locus. Furthermore, higher proliferation rate and increased IgE synthesis after IgE class-switching was found. Subsequently, we utilized an ovalbumin airway challenge model to test the allergic response in AROM+ male mice. In line with above observations, an increase in IgE levels was measured, albeit no impact on immune cell infiltration into the lungs was detected. Together, our findings suggest that high circulating E/A in males significantly alters B cell function without any significant enhancement in allergic inflammation.
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4.
  • Geraldine Guex, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Controlling pH by electronic ion pumps to fight fibrosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: APPLIED MATERIALS TODAY. - : ELSEVIER. - 2352-9407. ; 22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fibrosis and scar formation is a medical condition observed under various circumstances, ranging from skin wound healing to cardiac deterioration after myocardial infarction. Among other complex interdependent phases during wound healing, fibrosis is associated with an increased fibroblast to myofibroblast transition. A common hypothesis is that decreasing the pH of non-healing, alkaline wounds to a pH range of 6.0 to 6.5 increases healing rates. A new material-based strategy to change the pH by use of electronic ion pumps is here proposed. In contrast to passive acidic wound dressings limited by non-controlled delivery kinetics, the unique electronic ion pump design and operation enables a continuous regulation of pH by H+ delivery over prolonged durations. In an in vitro model, fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation is attenuated by lowering the physiological pH to an acidic regime of 6.62 +/- 0.06. Compared to differentiated myofibroblasts in media at pH 7.4, gene and protein expression of fibrosis relevant markers alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1 is significantly reduced. In conclusion, myofibroblast differentiation can be steered by controlling the pH of the cellular microenvironment by use of the electronic ion pump technology as new bioelectronic drug delivery devices. This technology opens up new therapeutic avenues to induce scar-free wound healing. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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5.
  • Klimek, Ludger, et al. (författare)
  • In-vivo diagnostic test allergens in Europe : A call to action and proposal for recovery plan-An EAACI position paper
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Wiley. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 75:9, s. 2161-2169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diagnostic allergens are defined as medicinal products in the EU. Marketing authorization by national authorities is necessary; however, diagnostic allergens are not homogeneously regulated in different EU member states. Allergen manufacturers argue with increasing costs forcing them to continuously reduce the diagnostic allergen portfolios offered to allergists. In contrast, EAACI and national European Allergy Societies see the need for the availability of a wide range of high‐quality diagnostic allergens for in vivo diagnosis of IgE‐mediated allergies not only covering predominant but also less frequent allergen sources. In a recent EAACI task force survey, the current practice of allergy diagnosis was shown to rely on skin tests as first option in almost 2/3 of all types of allergic diseases and in 90% regarding respiratory allergies.With the need to ensure the availability of high‐quality diagnostic allergens in the EU, an action plan has been set up by EAACI to analyse the current regulatory demands in EU member states and to define possible solutions stated in this document: (a) simplification of authorization for diagnostic allergens; (b) specific regulation of special types of diagnostic allergens; (c) new models beyond the current model of homologous groups; (d) simplification of pharmacovigilance reporting; (e) reduction of regulation fees for diagnostic allergens; (f) reimbursement for diagnostic allergens.Joining forces of allergists, manufacturers and authorities are of high importance to ensure remaining relevant allergens in the EU markets to facilitate a sustainable and comprehensive service for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.
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6.
  • Moisse, Matthieu, et al. (författare)
  • The Effect of SMN Gene Dosage on ALS Risk and Disease Severity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The role of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unclear, with several conflicting reports. A decisive result on this topic is needed, given that treatment options are available now for SMN deficiency.Methods: In this largest multicenter case control study to evaluate the effect of SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers in ALS, we used whole genome sequencing data from Project MinE data freeze 2. SMN copy numbers of 6,375 patients with ALS and 2,412 controls were called from whole genome sequencing data, and the reliability of the calls was tested with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification data.Results: The copy number distribution of SMN1 and SMN2 between cases and controls did not show any statistical differences (binomial multivariate logistic regression SMN1 p = 0.54 and SMN2 p = 0.49). In addition, the copy number of SMN did not associate with patient survival (Royston-Parmar; SMN1 p = 0.78 and SMN2 p = 0.23) or age at onset (Royston-Parmar; SMN1 p = 0.75 and SMN2 p = 0.63).Interpretation: In our well-powered study, there was no association of SMN1 or SMN2 copy numbers with the risk of ALS or ALS disease severity. This suggests that changing SMN protein levels in the physiological range may not modify ALS disease course. This is an important finding in the light of emerging therapies targeted at SMN deficiencies.
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7.
  • Wang, Mingyi, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid growth of new atmospheric particles by nitric acid and ammonia condensation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 581:7807, s. 184-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper New-particle formation is a major contributor to urban smog(1,2), but how it occurs in cities is often puzzling(3). If the growth rates of urban particles are similar to those found in cleaner environments (1-10 nanometres per hour), then existing understanding suggests that new urban particles should be rapidly scavenged by the high concentration of pre-existing particles. Here we show, through experiments performed under atmospheric conditions in the CLOUD chamber at CERN, that below about +5 degrees Celsius, nitric acid and ammonia vapours can condense onto freshly nucleated particles as small as a few nanometres in diameter. Moreover, when it is cold enough (below -15 degrees Celsius), nitric acid and ammonia can nucleate directly through an acid-base stabilization mechanism to form ammonium nitrate particles. Given that these vapours are often one thousand times more abundant than sulfuric acid, the resulting particle growth rates can be extremely high, reaching well above 100 nanometres per hour. However, these high growth rates require the gas-particle ammonium nitrate system to be out of equilibrium in order to sustain gas-phase supersaturations. In view of the strong temperature dependence that we measure for the gas-phase supersaturations, we expect such transient conditions to occur in inhomogeneous urban settings, especially in wintertime, driven by vertical mixing and by strong local sources such as traffic. Even though rapid growth from nitric acid and ammonia condensation may last for only a few minutes, it is nonetheless fast enough to shepherd freshly nucleated particles through the smallest size range where they are most vulnerable to scavenging loss, thus greatly increasing their survival probability. We also expect nitric acid and ammonia nucleation and rapid growth to be important in the relatively clean and cold upper free troposphere, where ammonia can be convected from the continental boundary layer and nitric acid is abundant from electrical storms(4,5).
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