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Sökning: WFRF:(Wennberg Bertil) > (2015-2019)

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  • Lundborg, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Human skin barrier structure and function analyzed by cryo-EM and molecular dynamics simulation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Structural Biology. - : Academic Press. - 1047-8477 .- 1095-8657. ; 203:2, s. 149-161
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study we have analyzed the molecular structure and function of the human skin's permeability barrier using molecular dynamics simulation validated against cryo-electron microscopy data from near native skin. The skin's barrier capacity is located to an intercellular lipid structure embedding the cells of the superficial most layer of skin - the stratum corneum. According to the splayed bilayer model (Iwai et al., 2012) the lipid structure is organized as stacked bilayers of ceramides in a splayed chain conformation with cholesterol associated with the ceramide sphingoid moiety and free fatty acids associated with the ceramide fatty acid moiety. However, knowledge about the lipid structure's detailed molecular organization, and the roles of its different lipid constituents, remains circumstantial. Starting from a molecular dynamics model based on the splayed bilayer model, we have, by stepwise structural and compositional modifications, arrived at a thermodynamically stable molecular dynamics model expressing simulated electron microscopy patterns matching original cryo-electron microscopy patterns from skin extremely closely. Strikingly, the closer the individual molecular dynamics models' lipid composition was to that reported in human stratum corneum, the better was the match between the models' simulated electron microscopy patterns and the original cryo-electron microscopy patterns. Moreover, the closest-matching model's calculated water permeability and thermotropic behaviour were found compatible with that of human skin. The new model may facilitate more advanced physics-based skin permeability predictions of drugs and toxicants. The proposed procedure for molecular dynamics based analysis of cellular cryo-electron microscopy data might be applied to other biomolecular systems.
  • Näslund, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) : a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 393:10167, s. 133-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease often fails because of poor adherence among practitioners and individuals to prevention guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-based pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, targeting both primary care physicians and individuals, improves prevention.METHODS: Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial that was integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, an ongoing population-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in northern Sweden. Individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years with one or more conventional risk factors were eligible to participate. Participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, and ultrasound assessment of carotid intima media wall thickness and plaque formation. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 with a computer-generated randomisation list to an intervention group (pictorial representation of carotid ultrasound plus a nurse phone call to confirm understanding) or a control group (not informed). The primary outcomes, Framingham risk score (FRS) and European systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE), were assessed after 1 year among participants who were followed up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01849575.FINDINGS: 3532 individuals were enrolled between April 29, 2013, and June 7, 2016, of which 1783 were randomly assigned to the control group and 1749 were assigned to the intervention group. 3175 participants completed the 1-year follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, FRS and SCORE differed significantly between groups (FRS 1·07 [95% CI 0·11 to 2·03, p=0·0017] and SCORE 0·16 [0·02 to 0·30, p=0·0010]). FRS decreased from baseline to the 1-year follow-up in the intervention group and increased in the control group (-0·58 [95% CI -0·86 to -0·30] vs 0·35 [0·08 to 0·63]). SCORE increased in both groups (0·13 [95% CI 0·09 to 0·18] vs 0·27 [0·23 to 0·30]).INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence of the contributory role of pictorial presentation of silent atherosclerosis for prevention of cardiovascular disease. It supports further development of methods to reduce the major problem of low adherence to medication and lifestyle modification.
  • Stockfelt, Leo, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution, Black Carbon, and Their Source Components in Relation to Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environmental health perspectives. - Durham : National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. - 1552-9924 .- 0091-6765. ; 127:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but few studies have considered incident disease in relation to PM from different sources.We aimed to study associations between long-term exposure to different types of PM and sources, and incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in three Swedish cities.Based on detailed emission databases, monitoring data, and high-resolution dispersion models, we calculated source contributions to PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μ m ( PM 10 ), PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μ m ( PM 2.5 ), and black carbon (BC) from road wear, traffic exhaust, residential heating, and other sources in Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Umeå. Registry data for participants from four cohorts were used to obtain incidence of IHD and stroke for first hospitalization or death. We constructed time windows of exposure for same-year, 1- to 5-y, and 6- to 10-y averages preceding incidence from annual averages at residential addresses. Risk estimates were based on random effects meta-analyses of cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models.We observed 5,166 and 3,119 incident IHD and stroke cases, respectively, in 114,758 participants. Overall, few consistent associations were observed between the different air pollution measures and IHD or stroke incidence. However, same-year levels of ambient locally emitted BC (range: 0.01 - 4.6   μ g / m 3 ) were associated with a 4.0% higher risk of incident stroke per interquartile range (IQR), 0.30   μ g / m 3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 7.8]. This association was primarily related to BC from traffic exhaust. PM 10 (range: 4.4 - 52   μ g / m 3 ) and PM 2.5 (range: 2.9 - 22   μ g / m 3 ) were not associated with stroke. Associations with incident IHD were observed only for PM 2.5 exposure from residential heating.Few consistent associations were observed between different particulate components and IHD or stroke. However, long-term residential exposure to locally emitted BC from traffic exhaust was associated with stroke incidence. The comparatively low exposure levels may have contributed to the paucity of associations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4757.
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