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Sökning: WFRF:(Woodward C) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Emerging Risk Factors, Collaboration, et al. (författare)
  • The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration: analysis of individual data on lipid, inflammatory and other markers in over 1.1 million participants in 104 prospective studies of cardiovascular diseases
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Eur J Epidemiol. - 0393-2990. ; 22:12, s. 839-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many long-term prospective studies have reported on associations of cardiovascular diseases with circulating lipid markers and/or inflammatory markers. Studies have not, however, generally been designed to provide reliable estimates under different circumstances and to correct for within-person variability. The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration has established a central database on over 1.1 million participants from 104 prospective population-based studies, in which subsets have information on lipid and inflammatory markers, other characteristics, as well as major cardiovascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on repeat measurements on relevant characteristics has been collected in approximately 340,000 participants to enable estimation of and correction for within-person variability. Re-analysis of individual data will yield up to approximately 69,000 incident fatal or nonfatal first ever major cardiovascular outcomes recorded during about 11.7 million person years at risk. The primary analyses will involve age-specific regression models in people without known baseline cardiovascular disease in relation to fatal or nonfatal first ever coronary heart disease outcomes. This initiative will characterize more precisely and in greater detail than has previously been possible the shape and strength of the age- and sex-specific associations of several lipid and inflammatory markers with incident coronary heart disease outcomes (and, secondarily, with other incident cardiovascular outcomes) under a wide range of circumstances. It will, therefore, help to determine to what extent such associations are independent from possible confounding factors and to what extent such markers (separately and in combination) provide incremental predictive value.
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2.
  • Danesh, John, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma fibrinogen level and the risk of major cardiovascular diseases and nonvascular mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598 .- 0098-7484. ; 294:14, s. 1799-1809
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Plasma fibrinogen levels may be associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships of fibrinogen levels with risk of major vascular and with risk of nonvascular outcomes based on individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: Relevant studies were identified by computer-assisted searches, hand searches of reference lists, and personal communication with relevant investigators. STUDY SELECTION: All identified prospective studies were included with information available on baseline fibrinogen levels and details of subsequent major vascular morbidity and/or cause-specific mortality during at least 1 year of follow-up. Studies were excluded if they recruited participants on the basis of having had a previous history of cardiovascular disease; participants with known preexisting CHD or stroke were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual records were provided on each of 154,211 participants in 31 prospective studies. During 1.38 million person-years of follow-up, there were 6944 first nonfatal myocardial infarctions or stroke events and 13,210 deaths. Cause-specific mortality was generally available. Analyses involved proportional hazards modeling with adjustment for confounding by known cardiovascular risk factors and for regression dilution bias. DATA SYNTHESIS: Within each age group considered (40-59, 60-69, and > or =70 years), there was an approximately log-linear association with usual fibrinogen level for the risk of any CHD, any stroke, other vascular (eg, non-CHD, nonstroke) mortality, and nonvascular mortality. There was no evidence of a threshold within the range of usual fibrinogen level studied at any age. The age- and sex- adjusted hazard ratio per 1-g/L increase in usual fibrinogen level for CHD was 2.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.24-2.60); stroke, 2.06 (95% CI, 1.83-2.33); other vascular mortality, 2.76 (95% CI, 2.28-3.35); and nonvascular mortality, 2.03 (95% CI, 1.90-2.18). The hazard ratios for CHD and stroke were reduced to about 1.8 after further adjustment for measured values of several established vascular risk factors. In a subset of 7011 participants with available C-reactive protein values, the findings for CHD were essentially unchanged following additional adjustment for C-reactive protein. The associations of fibrinogen level with CHD or stroke did not differ substantially according to sex, smoking, blood pressure, blood lipid levels, or several features of study design. CONCLUSIONS: In this large individual participant meta-analysis, moderately strong associations were found between usual plasma fibrinogen level and the risks of CHD, stroke, other vascular mortality, and nonvascular mortality in a wide range of circumstances in healthy middle-aged adults. Assessment of any causal relevance of elevated fibrinogen levels to disease requires additional research.
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3.
  • Lynch, David K., et al. (författare)
  • NOVA V2362 CYGNI (NOVA CYGNI 2006): SPITZER, SWIFT, AND GROUND-BASED SPECTRAL EVOLUTION
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 136:number 5, 2008 November, s. 1815-1827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nova V2362 Cygni has undergone a number of very unusual changes. Ground-based spectroscopy initially revealed a normal sequence of events: the object faded and its near-infrared emission lines gradually shifted to higher excitation conditions until about day 100 when the optical fading reversed and the object slowly brightened. This was accompanied by a rise in the Swift X-ray telescope flux and a sudden shift in excitation of the visible and IR spectrum back to low levels. The new lower excitation spectrum revealed broad line widths and many P-Cygni profiles, all indicative of the ejection of a second shell. Eventually, dust formed, the X-ray brightness—apparently unaffected by dust formation—peaked and then declined, and the object faded at all wavelengths. The Spitzer dust spectra revealed a number of solid-state emission features that, at this time, are not identified.
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4.
  • Bogers, Rik P., et al. (författare)
  • Association of overweight with increased risk of coronary heart disease partly independent of blood pressure and cholesterol levels - A meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies including more than 300,000 persons
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - : American Medical Association. - 0003-9926. ; 167:16, s. 1720-1728
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The extent to which moderate overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25.0-29.9 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]) and obesity ( BMI, >= 30.0) are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) through adverse effects on blood pressure and cholesterol levels is unclear, as is the risk of CHD that remains after these mediating effects are considered. Methods: Relative risks (RRs) of CHD associated with moderate overweight and obesity with and without adjustment for blood pressure and cholesterol concentrations were calculated by the members of a collaboration of prospective cohort studies of healthy, mainly white persons and pooled by means of random-effects models (RRs for categories of BMI in 14 cohorts and for continuous BMI in 21 cohorts; total N=302296). Results: A total of 18 000 CHD events occurred during follow-up. The age-, sex-, physical activity-, and smoking-adjusted RRs (95% confidence intervals) for moderate overweight and obesity compared with normal weight were 1.32 (1.24-1.40) and 1.81 (1.56-2.10), respectively. Additional adjustment for blood pressure and cholesterol levels reduced the RR to 1.17 (1.11-1.23) for moderate overweight and to 1.49 (1.32-1.67) for obesity. The RR associated with a 5-unit BMI increment was 1.29 (1.22-.35) before and 1.16 (1.11-1.21) after adjustment for blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Conclusions: Adverse effects of overweight on blood pressure and cholesterol levels could account for about 45% of the increased risk of CHD. Even for moderate overweight, there is a significant increased risk of CHD independent of these traditional risk factors, although confounding (eg, by dietary factors) cannot be completely ruled out.
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5.
  • Brose, Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • Body sizes of consumers and their resources
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : Ecological Society of America. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 86:9, s. 2545-2545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trophic information—who eats whom—and species’ body sizes are two of the most basic descriptions necessary to understand community structure as well as ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Consumer–resource body size ratios between predators and their prey, and parasitoids and their hosts, have recently gained increasing attention due to their important implications for species’ interaction strengths and dynamical population stability. This data set documents body sizes of consumers and their resources. We gathered body size data for the food webs of Skipwith Pond, a parasitoid community of grass-feeding chalcid wasps in British grasslands; the pelagic community of the Benguela system, a source web based on broom in the United Kingdom; Broadstone Stream, UK; the Grand Caric¸aie marsh at Lake Neuchaˆtel, Switzerland; Tuesday Lake, USA; alpine lakes in the Sierra Nevada of California; Mill Stream, UK; and the eastern Weddell Sea Shelf, Antarctica. Further consumer–resource body size data are included for planktonic predators, predatory nematodes, parasitoids, marine fish predators, freshwater invertebrates, Australian terrestrial consumers, and aphid parasitoids. Containing 16 807 records, this is the largest data set ever compiled for body sizes of consumers and their resources. In addition to body sizes, the data set includes information on consumer and resource taxonomy, the geographic location of the study, the habitat studied, the type of the feeding interaction (e.g., predacious, parasitic) and the metabolic categories of the species (e.g., invertebrate, ectotherm vertebrate). The present data set was gathered with the intent to stimulate research on effects of consumer–resource body size patterns on food-web structure, interaction-strength distributions, population dynamics, and community stability. The use of a common data set may facilitate cross-study comparisons and understanding of the relationships between different scientific approaches and models.
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7.
  • Forsman, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Prewetting and layering in athermal polymer solutions
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 94:11, s. 1-118301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coexistence conditions for prewetting and layering at a hard surface in additive hard sphere polymer solutions, where the solvent particles are smaller than the monomers, have been calculated by density functional methods. Various chain lengths and pressures have been investigated. An unexpected finding is that prewetting in these systems may proceed below the bulk critical pressure. We rationalize this behavior in terms of local properties of the pressure tensor. For longer chains, a different behavior is observed where the systems display a lower wetting pressure, i.e., a low pressure bound for surface wetting.
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8.
  • McKie, Brendan, et al. (författare)
  • Ecosystem functioning in stream assemblages from different regions : contrasting responses to variation in detritivore richness, evenness and density.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology. - 1365-2656. ; 77:3, s. 495-504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. The diversity of species traits characterising a biological assemblage reflects not only its species richness but also its species evenness and total density, which together influence the concentration of traits within functional guilds, and is ultimately constrained by the regional species pool. Implications of such variation for spatio-temporal variability in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships are potentially complex, but poorly understood.2. In separate microcosm experiments maintained at laboratories in Sweden, Romania and Ireland, we investigated effects of the species richness, evenness and density of stream-living detritivores on two related processes: detritivore leaf processing efficiency (LPE) and growth. Assemblage composition varied among the laboratories, with only one taxonomic order (Plecoptera) investigated in Sweden, whereas two orders, encompassing wider trait variation, were studied in Romania (Trichoptera and Plecoptera) and Ireland (Trichoptera and Isopoda).3. Relationships between density and both LPE and growth ranged from negative to positive across all the study species, highlighting the potential for density-dependent variation in process rates to alter ecosystem functioning, but indicating that such effects vary with species identity.4. Increased diversity was associated with 25-50% higher LPE in the two more heterogeneous assemblages, but whereas LPE in the Romanian study was generally enhanced as richness increased, LPE in the Irish study only increased in less even species mixtures dominated by particular species. Mechanisms underlying these diversity effects also contrasted. The Romanian results were predominantly attributable to the selection effect, whereas there was evidence for positive complementarity among species in Ireland.5. Growth was elevated in Romanian species mixtures, reflecting positive complementarity among species, but lower than expected growth in some Swedish mixtures was associated with negative complementarity.6. Our results emphasize the potential importance of detritivore diversity for stream ecosystem functioning across multiple contrasting assemblages, but variability in both the effects of diversity on the studied processes, and the mechanisms underlying those effects, highlight challenges in generalizing impacts of diversity change for the functional integrity of naturally dynamic stream ecosystems in situ.
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9.
  • Nilsson, Siv, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • The prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist butaprost increases uveoscleral outflow in the cynomolgus monkey
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. - 0146-0404 .- 1552-5783. ; 47:9, s. 4042-4049
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE. To investigate the ocular hypotensive effect of the prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist butaprost and to establish its mechanism of action. METHODS. All experiments were performed in cynomolgus monkeys after topical application of butaprost (0.1%). The effects of butaprost on aqueous humor flow were determined by fluorophotometry. Total outflow facility was measured by the two-level, constant-pressure perfusion method, and uveoscleral outflow was determined by perfusion of FITC-labeled dextran through the anterior chamber. Effects on ocular morphology were studied after tissue fixation with transcardial perfusion by paraformaldehyde and immersion fixation of the globe, in animals subjected to long-term treatment with butaprost. Conscious ocular normotensive monkeys and monkeys with unilateral ocular hypertension were used for intraocular pressure (IOP) studies. RESULTS. Butaprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow or total outflow facility in ocular normotensive monkeys. Uveoscleral outflow was significantly higher in the butaprost treated eyes than in vehicle treated eyes, 1.03 ± 0.20 vs. 0.53 ± 0.18 μL · min-1. After a 1-year treatment with butaprost, the morphology of the ciliary muscle was changed, showing increased spaces between ciliary muscle bundles and the apparent formation of new outflow channels. In many instances, changes were observed in the trabecular meshwork as well. Butaprost, in a single 0.1% dose, decreased IOP significantly in ocular normotensive monkeys and reduced IOP in laser-induced glaucomatous monkey eyes to the same level as that in the ocular normotensive contralateral eyes. CONCLUSIONS. The prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist butaprost appears to lower IOP by increasing uveoscleral outflow, according to both physiological and morphologic findings. Although the prostanoid EP2 receptor is structurally and functionally distinct from the FP receptor, the effects of EP2 and FP receptor stimulation on aqueous humor outflow are similar. Copyright © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
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10.
  • Poulton, Alex J., et al. (författare)
  • Phytoplankton carbon fixation, chlorophyll-biomass and diagnostic pigments in the Atlantic Ocean
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Deep-sea research. Part II, Topical studies in oceanography. - 0967-0645 .- 1879-0100. ; 53:14-16, s. 1593-1610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have made daily measurements of phytoplankton pigments, size-fractionated (< 2 and > 2-mu m) carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a concentration during four Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) cruises in 2003-04. Surface rates of carbon fixation ranged from < 0.2-mmol C m(-3) d(-1) in the subtropical gyres to 0.2-0.5-mmol C m(-3) d(-1) in the tropical equatorial Atlantic. Significant intercruise variability was restricted to the subtropical gyres, with higher chlorophyll-a concentrations and carbon fixation in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum during spring in either hemisphere. In surface waters, although picoplankton (<-mu m) represented the dominant fraction in terms of both carbon fixation (50-70%) and chlorophyll-alpha (80-90%), nanoplankton (> 2-mu m) contributions to total carbon fixation (30-50%) were higher than to total chlorophyll-alpha (10-20%). However, in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum picoplankton dominated both carbon fixation (70-90%) and chlorophyll-alpha (70-90%). Thus, in surface waters chlorophyll-normalised carbon fixation was 2-3 times higher for nanoplankton and differences in picoplankton and nanoplankton carbon to chlorophyll-alpha ratios may lead to either higher or similar growth rates. These low chlorophyll-normalised carbon fixation rates for picoplankton may also reflect losses of fixed carbon (cell leakage or respiration), decreases in photosynthetic efficiency, grazing losses during the incubations, or some combination of all these. Comparison of nitrate concentrations in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum with estimates of those required to support the observed rates of carbon fixation (assuming Redfield stoichiometry) indicate that primary production in the chlorophyll maximum may be light rather than nutrient limited.
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