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Sökning: WFRF:(Woodward C) > (2005-2009) > (2006)

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  • Nilsson, Siv, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • The prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist butaprost increases uveoscleral outflow in the cynomolgus monkey
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. - 0146-0404 .- 1552-5783. ; 47:9, s. 4042-4049
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE. To investigate the ocular hypotensive effect of the prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist butaprost and to establish its mechanism of action. METHODS. All experiments were performed in cynomolgus monkeys after topical application of butaprost (0.1%). The effects of butaprost on aqueous humor flow were determined by fluorophotometry. Total outflow facility was measured by the two-level, constant-pressure perfusion method, and uveoscleral outflow was determined by perfusion of FITC-labeled dextran through the anterior chamber. Effects on ocular morphology were studied after tissue fixation with transcardial perfusion by paraformaldehyde and immersion fixation of the globe, in animals subjected to long-term treatment with butaprost. Conscious ocular normotensive monkeys and monkeys with unilateral ocular hypertension were used for intraocular pressure (IOP) studies. RESULTS. Butaprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow or total outflow facility in ocular normotensive monkeys. Uveoscleral outflow was significantly higher in the butaprost treated eyes than in vehicle treated eyes, 1.03 ± 0.20 vs. 0.53 ± 0.18 μL · min-1. After a 1-year treatment with butaprost, the morphology of the ciliary muscle was changed, showing increased spaces between ciliary muscle bundles and the apparent formation of new outflow channels. In many instances, changes were observed in the trabecular meshwork as well. Butaprost, in a single 0.1% dose, decreased IOP significantly in ocular normotensive monkeys and reduced IOP in laser-induced glaucomatous monkey eyes to the same level as that in the ocular normotensive contralateral eyes. CONCLUSIONS. The prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist butaprost appears to lower IOP by increasing uveoscleral outflow, according to both physiological and morphologic findings. Although the prostanoid EP2 receptor is structurally and functionally distinct from the FP receptor, the effects of EP2 and FP receptor stimulation on aqueous humor outflow are similar. Copyright © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
  • Poulton, Alex J., et al. (författare)
  • Phytoplankton carbon fixation, chlorophyll-biomass and diagnostic pigments in the Atlantic Ocean
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Deep-sea research. Part II, Topical studies in oceanography. - 0967-0645 .- 1879-0100. ; 53:14-16, s. 1593-1610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have made daily measurements of phytoplankton pigments, size-fractionated (< 2 and > 2-mu m) carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a concentration during four Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) cruises in 2003-04. Surface rates of carbon fixation ranged from < 0.2-mmol C m(-3) d(-1) in the subtropical gyres to 0.2-0.5-mmol C m(-3) d(-1) in the tropical equatorial Atlantic. Significant intercruise variability was restricted to the subtropical gyres, with higher chlorophyll-a concentrations and carbon fixation in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum during spring in either hemisphere. In surface waters, although picoplankton (<-mu m) represented the dominant fraction in terms of both carbon fixation (50-70%) and chlorophyll-alpha (80-90%), nanoplankton (> 2-mu m) contributions to total carbon fixation (30-50%) were higher than to total chlorophyll-alpha (10-20%). However, in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum picoplankton dominated both carbon fixation (70-90%) and chlorophyll-alpha (70-90%). Thus, in surface waters chlorophyll-normalised carbon fixation was 2-3 times higher for nanoplankton and differences in picoplankton and nanoplankton carbon to chlorophyll-alpha ratios may lead to either higher or similar growth rates. These low chlorophyll-normalised carbon fixation rates for picoplankton may also reflect losses of fixed carbon (cell leakage or respiration), decreases in photosynthetic efficiency, grazing losses during the incubations, or some combination of all these. Comparison of nitrate concentrations in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum with estimates of those required to support the observed rates of carbon fixation (assuming Redfield stoichiometry) indicate that primary production in the chlorophyll maximum may be light rather than nutrient limited.
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