1. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results L. Evidence of spatial variation of the polarized thermal dust spectral energy distribution and implications for CMB Bmode analysis
 2017

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 599

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The characterization of the Galactic foregrounds has been shown to be the main obstacle in the challenging quest to detect primordial Bmodes in the polarized microwave sky. We make use of the PlanckHFI 2015 data release at high frequencies to place new constraints on the properties of the polarized thermal dust emission at high Galactic latitudes. Here, we specifically study the spatial variability of the dust polarized spectral energy distribution (SED), and its potential impact on the determination of the tensortoscalar ratio, r. We use the correlation ratio of the CBB `angular power spectra between the 217 and 353 GHz channels as a tracer of these potential variations, computed on different high Galactic latitude regions, ranging from 80% to 20% of the sky. The new insight from Planck data is a departure of the correlation ratio from unity that cannot be attributed to a spurious decorrelation due to the cosmic microwave background, instrumental noise, or instrumental systematics. The effect is marginally detected on each region, but the statistical combination of all the regions gives more than 99% confidence for this variation in polarized dust properties. In addition, we show that the decorrelation increases when there is a decrease in the mean column density of the region of the sky being considered, and we propose a simple powerlaw empirical model for this dependence, which matches what is seen in the Planck data. We explore the effect that this measured decorrelation has on simulations of the BICEP2Keck Array/Planck analysis and show that the 2015 constraints from these data still allow a decorrelation between the dust at 150 and 353 GHz that is compatible with our measured value. Finally, using simplified models, we show that either spatial variation of the dust SED or of the dust polarization angle are able to produce decorrelations between 217 and 353 GHz data similar to the values we observe in the data.


2. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results LI. Features in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum and shifts in cosmological parameters
 2017

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 607

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The six parameters of the standard Lambda CDM model have bestfit values derived from the Planck temperature power spectrum that are shifted somewhat from the bestfit values derived from WMAP data. These shifts are driven by features in the Planck temperature power spectrum at angular scales that had never before been measured to cosmicvariance level precision. We have investigated these shifts to determine whether they are within the range of expectation and to understand their origin in the data. Taking our parameter set to be the optical depth of the reionized intergalactic medium tau, the baryon density omega(b), the matter density omega(m), the angular size of the sound horizon theta(*), the spectral index of the primordial power spectrum, n(s), and A(s)e(2 pi) (where As is the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum), we have examined the change in bestfit values between a WMAPlike large angularscale data set (with multipole moment l < 800 in the Planck temperature power spectrum) and an all angularscale data set (l < 2500 Planck temperature power spectrum), each with a prior on tau of 0.07 +/ 0.02. We find that the shifts, in units of the 1 sigma expected dispersion for each parameter, are {Delta tau, Delta A(s)e(2 tau), Delta n(s), Delta omega(m), Delta omega(b), Delta theta(*)} = {1.7, 2.2, 1.2, 2.0, 1.1, 0.9}, with a chi(2) value of 8.0. We find that this chi(2) value is exceeded in 15% of our simulated data sets, and that a parameter deviates by more than 2.2 sigma in 9% of simulated data sets, meaning that the shifts are not unusually large. Comparing l < 800 instead to l > 800, or splitting at a different multipole, yields similar results. We examined the l < 800 model residuals in the l > 800 power spectrum data and find that the features there that drive these shifts are a set of oscillations across a broad range of angular scales. Although they partly appear similar to the effects of enhanced gravitational lensing, the shifts in Lambda CDM parameters that arise in response to these features correspond to model spectrum changes that are predominantly due to nonlensing effects; the only exception is tau, which, at fixed A(s)e(2 tau), affects the l > 800 temperature power spectrum solely through the associated change in As and the impact of that on the lensing potential power spectrum. We also ask, what is it about the power spectrum at l < 800 that leads to somewhat different bestfit parameters than come from the full l range? We find that if we discard the data at l < 30, where there is a roughly 2 sigma downward fluctuation in power relative to the model that best fits the full l range, the l < 800 bestfit parameters shift significantly towards the l < 2500 bestfit parameters. In contrast, including l < 30, this previously noted lowl deficit drives ns up and impacts parameters correlated with ns, such as omega(m) and H0. As expected, the l < 30 data have a much greater impact on the l < 800 best fit than on the l < 2500 best fit. So although the shifts are not very significant, we find that they can be understood through the combined effects of an oscillatorylike set of highl residuals and the deficit in lowl power, excursions consistent with sample variance that happen to map onto changes in cosmological parameters. Finally, we examine agreement between Planck TT data and two other CMB data sets, namely the Planck lensing reconstruction and the TT power spectrum measured by the South Pole Telescope, again finding a lack of convincing evidence of any significant deviations in parameters, suggesting that current CMB data sets give an internally consistent picture of the Lambda CDM model.


3. 
 Akrami, Y., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results LII. Planet flux densities
 2017

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 607

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Measurements of flux density are described for five planets, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, across the six Planck High Frequency Instrument frequency bands (100857 GHz) and these are then compared with models and existing data. In our analysis, we have also included estimates of the brightness of Jupiter and Saturn at the three frequencies of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (30, 44, and 70 GHz). The results provide constraints on the intrinsic brightness and the brightness timevariability of these planets. The majority of the planet flux density estimates are limited by systematic errors, but still yield better than 1% measurements in many cases. Applying data from Planck HFI, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) to a model that incorporates contributions from Saturn's rings to the planet's total flux density suggests a best fit value for the spectral index of Saturn's ring system of beta(ring) = 2 : 30 +/ 0 : 03 over the 301000 GHz frequency range. Estimates of the polarization amplitude of the planets have also been made in the four bands that have polarizationsensitive detectors (100353 GHz); this analysis provides a 95% confidence level upper limit on Mars's polarization of 1.8, 1.7, 1.2, and 1.7% at 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, respectively. The average ratio between the PlanckHFI measurements and the adopted model predictions for all five planets (excluding Jupiter observations for 353 GHz) is 1.004, 1.002, 1.021, and 1.033 for 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, respectively. Model predictions for planet thermodynamic temperatures are therefore consistent with the absolute calibration of PlanckHFI detectors at about the threepercent level. We compare our measurements with published results from recent cosmic microwave background experiments. In particular, we observe that the flux densities measured by Planck HFI and WMAP agree to within 2%. These results allow experiments operating in the mmwavelength range to crosscalibrate against Planck and improve models of radiative transport used in planetary science.

