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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Zock J. P.) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Zock J. P.) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Burney, P., et al. (författare)
  • A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations : a GAL2EN project
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 63:7, s. 865-871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in Europe to assess the relation of plasma selenium to asthma. The network compared 569 cases in 14 European centres with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 576 controls from the same centres with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12 months. RESULTS: All cases and controls were selected from the same population defined by age and place of residence. Mean plasma selenium concentrations among the controls ranged from 116.3 microg/l in Palermo to 67.7 microg/l in Vienna and 56.1 microg/l among the children in Oslo. Random effects meta-analysis of the results from the centres showed no overall association between asthma and plasma selenium [odds ratio (OR)/10 microg/l increase in plasma selenium: 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.21] though there was a significantly protective effect in Lodz (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29-0.78) and a marginally significant adverse effect in Amsterdam (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 0.98-2.90) and Ghent (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.03-1.77). CONCLUSION: This study does not support a role for selenium in protection against asthma, but effect modification and confounding cannot be ruled out.
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2.
  • Bousquet, J, et al. (författare)
  • GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Allergy. - 1398-9995. ; 64:7, s. 969-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA(2)LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out and the first papers are being published. Achievements of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network can be grouped as follows: (i) those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase, (ii) those which are project-related and based on these novel infrastructures, and (iii) the development and implementation of guidelines. The major achievements of GA(2)LEN are reported in this paper.
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4.
  • Radon, Katja, et al. (författare)
  • Occupation and adult onset of rhinitis in the general population
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 65:1, s. 38-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Occupational exposures have been associated with an increased risk of new-onset rhinitis in apprentices. However, population-based prospective data are scarce and do not cover new onset of rhinitis later in life. The authors studied the association between occupational exposure and adult onset of rhinitis prospectively. Methods: The data of 4994 participants (age at follow-up 28-57 years) from 27 centres of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II who were symptom-free at baseline were analysed. As outcome at follow-up self-reported (a) nasal allergies ("allergic rhinitis'') and (b) runny, blocked nose for 12 months a year ("perennial rhinitis'') were used. Occupational exposures at any time during follow-up were defined by job title. Results: The cumulative incidence of allergic rhinitis, perennial rhinitis and both conditions was 12%, 11% and 3%, respectively. Compared to office workers, male medical professionals were at increased risk of new onset of allergic rhinitis (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 6.4). Odds ratios were reduced in metal workers not involved in metal making or treating (0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7). For perennial rhinitis ORs were significantly increased in cleaners (1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1). Conclusions: Cleaners and medical professionals may be at increased risk for adult-onset rhinitis.
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5.
  • Shaheen, S., et al. (författare)
  • The relation between paracetamol use and asthma : a GA2LEN European case-control study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 32:5, s. 1231-1236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies from the UK and USA suggest that frequent use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) may increase the risk of asthma, but data across Europe are lacking. As part of a multicentric case-control study organised by the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), it was examined whether or not frequent paracetamol use is associated with adult asthma across Europe. The network compared 521 cases with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting of asthma symptoms within the last 12 months with 507 controls with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms within the last 12 months across 12 European centres. All cases and controls were selected from the same population, defined by age (20-45 yrs) and place of residence. In a random effects meta-analysis, weekly use of paracetamol, compared with less frequent use, was strongly positively associated with asthma after controlling for confounders. There was no evidence for heterogeneity across centres. No association was seen between use of other analgesics and asthma. These data add to the increasing and consistent epidemiological evidence implicating frequent paracetamol use in asthma in diverse populations.
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7.
  • Svanes, C, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term reliability in reporting of childhood pets by adults interviewed twice, 9 years apart. Results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey I and II
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 18:2, s. 84-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigation of long-term effects of childhood pet exposure is usually based on retrospective information provided by adults, while there is little knowledge about the reliability in adult reporting of childhood events. We analyzed 8287 adults interviewed about childhood pets twice, on average nine years apart, in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Agreement between the surveys in reporting of childhood cats, dogs and birds were investigated with kappa statistics, and potential effects of disease status on agreement were analyzed with kappa statistics and multiple logistic regressions. Cats, dogs and birds in childhood were reported by 44, 41 and 38%, respectively. Cohen's kappa for agreement in adult reporting of childhood pets was 0.714 (95% CI=0.698-0.729) for cat, 0.709 (0.691-0.722) for dog, and 0.606 (0.591-0.626) for bird. Thus, agreement was significantly higher for reporting of cat and dog than for bird. Adult wheeze, asthma or atopy did not influence agreement. Neither did adult cat sensitization influence agreement in adult reporting of childhood cat. Childhood factors such as moving house <5 years, or growing up as a single child, in a large family or in a rural area, were associated with poorer agreement, while adult factors were unrelated to agreement. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Long-term reliability in adult reporting of childhood pets was substantial, and not influenced by disease status. Thus, collection of information about childhood pets from adults appears to be reliable for the purpose of studying adult allergic disease. Future studies should consider that the reliability was higher for a more important childhood event and influenced by childhood rather than adult characteristics. Imperfect reliability contributed to underestimation of the effects of pets on adult allergy; i.e. with a kappa of 0.71, a true odds ratio (OR) of 0.80 would be attenuated to 0.86. Future studies should account for non-differential misclassification error.
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8.
  • Torén, Kjell, 1952, et al. (författare)
  • An international prospective general population-based study of respiratory work disability.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - 1468-3296. ; 64:4, s. 339-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have shown that job change due to breathing problems at the workplace (respiratory work disability) is common among adults of working age. That research indicated that occupational exposure to gases, dust and fumes was associated with job change due to breathing problems, although causal inferences have been tempered by the cross-sectional nature of previously available data. There is a need for general population-based prospective studies to assess the incidence of respiratory work disability and to delineate better the roles of potential predictors of respiratory work disability. METHODS: A prospective general population cohort study was performed in 25 centres in 11 European countries and one centre in the USA. A longitudinal analysis was undertaken of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey including all participants employed at any point since the baseline survey, 6659 subjects randomly sampled and 779 subjects comprising all subjects reporting physician-diagnosed asthma. The main outcome measure was new-onset respiratory work disability, defined as a reported job change during follow-up attributed to breathing problems. Exposure to dusts (biological or mineral), gases or fumes during follow-up was recorded using a job-exposure matrix. Cox proportional hazard regression modelling was used to analyse such exposure as a predictor of time until job change due to breathing problems. RESULTS: The incidence rate of respiratory work disability was 1.2/1000 person-years of observation in the random sample (95% CI 1.0 to 1.5) and 5.7/1000 person-years in the asthma cohort (95% CI 4.1 to 7.8). In the random population sample, as well as in the asthma cohort, high occupational exposure to biological dust, mineral dust or gases or fumes predicted increased risk of respiratory work disability. In the random sample, sex was not associated with increased risk of work disability while, in the asthma cohort, female sex was associated with an increased disability risk (hazard ratio 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.9). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory work disability is common overall. It is associated with workplace exposures that could be controlled through preventive measures.
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9.
  • Blanc, P D, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational exposures and COPD: an ecological analysis of international data.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology. - 1399-3003. ; 33:2, s. 298-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The occupational contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has yet to be put in a global perspective. In the present study, an ecological approach to this question was used, analysing group-level data from 90 sex-specific strata from 45 sites of the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study, the Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey follow-up. These data were used to study the association between occupational exposures and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II or above. Regression analysis of the sex-specific group-level prevalence rates of COPD at each site against the prevalence of occupational exposure and ever-smoking was performed, taking into account mean smoking pack-yrs and mean age by site, sex, study cohort and sample size. For the entire data set, the prevalence of exposures predicted COPD prevalence (0.8% increase in COPD prevalence per 10% increase in exposure prevalence). By comparison, for every 10% increase in the proportion of the ever-smoking population, the prevalence of COPD GOLD stage II or above increased by 1.3%. Given the observed median population COPD prevalence of 3.4%, the model predicted that a 20% relative reduction in the disease burden (i.e. to a COPD prevalence of 2.7%) could be achieved by a 5.4% reduction in overall smoking rates or an 8.8% reduction in the prevalence of occupational exposures. When the data set was analysed by sex-specific site data, among males, the occupational effect was a 0.8% COPD prevalence increase per 10% change in exposure prevalence; among females, a 1.0% increase in COPD per 10% change in exposure prevalence was observed. Within the limitations of an ecological analysis, these findings support a worldwide association between dusty trades and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for both females and males, placing this within the context of the dominant role of cigarette smoking in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causation.
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10.
  • Ellison-Loschmann, L., et al. (författare)
  • Socioeconomic status, asthma and chronic bronchitis in a large community-based study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 29:5, s. 897-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status, using measures of occupational class and education level, and the prevalence and incidence of asthma (with and without atopy) and chronic bronchitis using data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Asthma and chronic bronchitis were studied prospectively within the ECRHS (n=9,023). Incidence analyses comprised subjects with no history of asthma or bronchitis at baseline. Asthma symptoms were also assessed as a continuous score. Bronchitis risk was associated with low educational level (prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.8) and occupatsional class (1.8; 1.2-2.7). Incident bronchitis also increased with low educational level (risk ratio (RR) 2.8; 95%CI 1.5-5.4). Prevalent and incident asthma with no atopy were associated with low educational level. Subjects in the low occupational class (incident risk ratio (IRR) 1.4; 95%CI 1.2-1.7) and education group (IRR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6) had higher mean asthma scores than those in higher socioeconomic groups. Lower educational level was associated with increased risk of prevalent and incident chronic bronchitis and asthma with no atopy. Lower socioeconomic groups tended to have a higher prevalence and incidence of asthma, particularly higher mean asthma scores. Adjustment for variables associated with asthma and bronchitis explained little of the observed health differences by socioeconomic status.
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