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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Zock Jan Paul) srt2:(2015-2019)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Zock Jan Paul) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Chen, Chih-Mei, et al. (författare)
  • Is There a Threshold Concentration of Cat Allergen Exposure on Respiratory Symptoms in Adults?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 10:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objective Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 mu g/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8 mu g/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the asthma related respiratory symptoms or the development of sensitization has not yet been confirmed. We studied the associations between domestic cat allergen concentrations and allergic symptoms in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II, with the aim of confirming this suggested threshold. Methods Cat allergen concentrations were measured in the mattress dust of 3003 participants from 22 study centres. Levels of specific immunoglobulin E to cat allergens were measured in serum samples using an immunoassay. Information on allergic symptoms, medication use, home environment and smoking was obtained from a face-to-face interview. Results Domestic cat allergen concentrations were not associated with allergic/asthmatic symptoms in the entire study population, nor in the subset sensitized to cat allergen. We also found no association among individuals exposed to concentrations higher than 8 mu g/g. However, exposure to medium cat allergen concentrations (0.24-0.63 mu g/g) was positively associated with reported asthmatic respiratory symptoms in subjects who have experienced allergic symptoms when near animals. Conclusions The proposed 8 mu g/g threshold of cat allergen concentrations for the exacerbation of allergic/respiratory symptoms was not confirmed in a general European adult population. Potential biases attributable to avoidance behaviours and an imprecise exposure assessment cannot be excluded.
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2.
  • Flexeder, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Second-hand smoke exposure in adulthood and lower respiratory health during 20 year follow up in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Research. - : BioMed Central. - 1465-9921 .- 1465-993X. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early life exposure to tobacco smoke has been extensively studied but the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) for new-onset respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in adulthood has not been widely investigated in longitudinal studies. Our aim is to investigate the associations of exposure to SHS in adults with respiratory symptoms, respiratory conditions and lung function over 20 years. We used information from 3011 adults from 26 centres in 12 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Surveys I-III and were never or former smokers at all three surveys. Associations of SHS exposure with respiratory health (asthma symptom score, asthma, chronic bronchitis, COPD) were analysed using generalised linear mixed-effects models adjusted for confounding factors (including sex, age, smoking status, socioeconomic status and allergic sensitisation). Linear mixed-effects models with additional adjustment for height were used to assess the relationships between SHS exposure and lung function levels and decline. Reported exposure to SHS decreased in all 26 study centres over time. The prevalence of SHS exposure was 38.7% at baseline (1990-1994) and 7.1% after the 20-year follow-up (2008-2011). On average 2.4% of the study participants were not exposed at the first, but were exposed at the third examination. An increase in SHS exposure over time was associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (odds ratio (OR): 2.7; 95% confidence interval (95%-CI): 1.2-5.9), chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.8; 95%-CI: 1.6-15.0), asthma symptom score (count ratio (CR): 1.9; 95%-CI: 1.2-2.9) and dyspnoea (OR: 2.7; 95%-CI: 1.1-6.7) compared to never exposed to SHS. Associations between increase in SHS exposure and incidence of COPD (OR: 2.0; 95%-CI: 0.6-6.0) or lung function (beta: - 49 ml; 95%-CI: -132, 35 for FEV1 and beta: - 62 ml; 95%-CI: -165, 40 for FVC) were not apparent. Exposure to second-hand smoke may lead to respiratory symptoms, but this is not accompanied by lung function changes.
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3.
  • Jarvis, Debbie, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms with ageing
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:1, s. 37-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Change in the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in populations of ageing adults is likely to be influenced by smoking, asthma treatment and atopy.METHODS: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey collected information on prevalent asthma-like symptoms from representative samples of adults aged 20-44 years (29 centres in 13 European countries and Australia) at baseline and 10 and 20 years later (n=7844). Net changes in symptom prevalence were determined using generalised estimating equations (accounting for non-response through inverse probability weighting), followed by meta-analysis of centre level estimates.FINDINGS: Over 20 years the prevalence of 'wheeze' and 'wheeze in the absence of a cold' decreased (-2.4%, 95% CI -3.5 to -1.3%; -1.5%, 95% CI -2.4 to -0.6%, respectively) but the prevalence of asthma attacks, use of asthma medication and hay fever/nasal allergies increased (0.6%, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.11; 3.6%, 95% CI 3.0 to 4.2; 2.7%, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.7). Changes were similar in the first 10 years compared with the second 10 years, except for hay fever/nasal allergies (increase seen in the first 10 years only). Decreases in these wheeze-related symptoms were largely seen in the group who gave up smoking, and were seen in those who reported hay fever/nasal allergies at baseline.INTERPRETATION: European adults born between 1946 and 1970 have, over the last 20 years, experienced less wheeze, although they were more likely to report asthma attacks, use of asthma medication and hay fever. Decrease in wheeze is largely attributable to smoking cessation, rather than improved treatment of asthma. It may also be influenced by reductions in atopy with ageing.
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4.
  • Pekkanen, Juha, et al. (författare)
  • Indoor bacteria and asthma in adults : a multicentre case-control study within ECRHS II
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 51:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both protective and adverse effects of indoor microbial exposure on asthma have been reported, but mostly in children. To date, no study in adults has used non-targeted methods for detection of indoor bacteria followed by quantitative confirmation. A cross-sectional study of 198 asthmatic and 199 controls was conducted within the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) II. DNA was extracted from mattress dust for bacterial analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Selected bands were sequenced and associations with asthma confirmed with four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. 15 out of 37 bands detected with DGGE, which had at least a suggestive association (p<0.25) with asthma, were sequenced. Of the four targeted qPCRs, Clostridium cluster XI confirmed the protective association with asthma. The association was dose dependent (aOR 0.43 (95% CI 0.22-0.84) for the fourth versus first quartile, p for trend 0.009) and independent of other microbial markers. Few significant associations were observed for the three other qPCRs used. In this large international study, the level of Clostridium cluster XI was independently associated with a lower risk of prevalent asthma. Results suggest the importance of environmental bacteria also in adult asthma, but need to be confirmed in future studies.
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5.
  • Storaas, Torgeir, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of rhinitis and asthma related to welding in Northern Europe
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : The European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 46:5, s. 1290-1297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Welding-related asthma is well recognised but less is known about rhinitis in relation to welding. The aim here, was to study associations between welding, rhinitis and asthma in a general population sample, and factors influencing selection into and out of a welding occupation.Adult-onset asthma and non-infectious rhinitis were investigated in the international multicentre population-based Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) study, including 16 191 responders aged 26-54 years. Ever welding (n=2181), welding >25% of working time (n=747), and welding in stainless steel >6 months (n=173) were assessed by questionnaire. Subjects with rhinitis or asthma onset when aged <18 years were excluded. Incidence rates for asthma and rhinitis were calculated from year of disease onset, and start and end of welding job. Cox's proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, parental education and study centre, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used.Rhinitis incidence was higher among welders (hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), consistent in men and women, and across centres (pheterogeneity=0.4). In men, asthma incidence was higher among welders (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.04-1.97). Quitting welding was indicated higher after adult-onset rhinitis (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3).Adult-onset rhinitis and asthma was higher among welders, consistent across population samples from Northern Europe. No pre-employment selection was found, whereas selection out of welding jobs was suggested.
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6.
  • Tischer, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of microbial agents in dust and respiratory health in the Ecrhs
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dampness and mould exposure have been repeatedly associated with respiratory health. However, less is known about the specific agents provoking or arresting health effects in adult populations. We aimed to assess predictors of microbial agents in mattress dust throughout Europe and to investigate associations between microbial exposures, home characteristics and respiratory health. Methods: Seven different fungal and bacterial parameters were assessed in mattress dust from 956 adult ECRHS II participants in addition to interview based home characteristics. Associations between microbial parameters and the asthma score and lung function were examined using mixed negative binomial regression and linear mixed models, respectively. Results: Indoor dampness and pet keeping were significant predictors for higher microbial agent concentrations in mattress dust. Current mould and condensation in the bedroom were significantly associated with lung function decline and current mould at home was positively associated with the asthma score. Higher concentrations of muramic acid were associated with higher mean ratios of the asthma score (aMR 1.37, 95% CI 1.17-1.61). There was no evidence for any association between fungal and bacterial components and lung function. Conclusion: Indoor dampness was associated with microbial levels in mattress dust which in turn was positively associated with asthma symptoms.
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7.
  • Valkonen, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Microbial characteristics in homes of asthmatic and non-asthmatic adults in the ECRHS cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 28:1, s. 16-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbial exposures in homes of asthmatic adults have been rarely investigated; specificities and implications for respiratory health are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations of microbial levels with asthma status, asthma symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and atopy. Mattress dust samples of 199 asthmatics and 198 control subjects from 7 European countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II study were analyzed for fungal and bacterial cell wall components and individual taxa. We observed trends for protective associations of higher levels of mostly bacterial markers. Increased levels of muramic acid, a cell wall component predominant in Gram-positive bacteria, tended to be inversely associated with asthma (OR's for different quartiles: II 0.71 [0.39-1.30], III 0.44 [0.23-0.82], and IV 0.60 [0.31-1.18] P for trend .07) and with asthma score (P for trend .06) and with atopy (P for trend .02). These associations were more pronounced in northern Europe. This study among adults across Europe supports a potential protective effect of Gram-positive bacteria in mattress dust and points out that this may be more pronounced in areas where microbial exposure levels are generally lower.
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