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  • Aagaard Hagemann, Frederik, et al. (författare)
  • Urban ecosystem services in strategic planning in Swedish municipalities
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Urban Ecosystems. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 1083-8155 .- 1573-1642. ; 24, s. 1343-1357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research to date on urban ecosystem services has mainly been conducted in large cities, particularly in China, the USA and some European countries. This study examined the provision of urban ecosystem services in a Swedish municipality context, based on interviews with municipal stakeholders in strategic management and planning from six municipalities and a review of existing publications readily available to practitioners. The analysis focused on (1) the ecosystem services explicitly covered, (2) whether multifunctionality was covered and specific synergies and trade-offs identified and, (3) the spatial scale and context used for ecosystem services (valuation/mapping, planning, design or maintenance) in practical application. The results showed that regulatory services are very much the focus in municipal operations as well as in publications available to practitioners. This is reflected in the implementation of the concept through problem solving often related to regulatory services, using multifunctionality and win-win situations in ecosystem service supply. These findings contribute to the growing body of work exploring how the concept of ecosystem services is adapted and utilised in practice.
  • Aakko-Saksa, Païvi T., et al. (författare)
  • Renewable Methanol with Ignition Improver Additive for Diesel Engines
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Energy and Fuels. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0887-0624.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reduced emissions and environmental burden from shipping are an important aim of tightening emission regulations and ambitious climate change strategy. Renewable methanol produced from biomass or from other renewable sources represents one option to face these challenges. We studied the potential of renewable methanol to offer such benefits in diesel operation in a Scania ethanol engine, which is designed for additized ethanol fuel (ED95) containing ignition improver and lubricity additives. Methanol (MD95) with several types of ignition improver and lubricity additives was studied for use in diesel engines. MD95 fuels were clean-burning, emitting even less gaseous emissions than ED95, particularly when glycerol ethoxylate was used as an ignition improver. Particle mass and number emissions originating from additives in the experimental fuels could be reduced with an oxidation catalyst. Reduced additive dosing in the MD95 fuels was studied with the aid of fuel injection into the intake manifold. Overall, the results showed that the monofuel MD95 concept is a promising solution for smaller vessels equipped with 800-1200 kW engines. ©
  • Aalaei, Kataneh, et al. (författare)
  • Application of a dye-binding method for the determination of available lysine in skim milk powders.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Food Chemistry. - : Elsevier. - 1873-7072. ; 196, s. 815-820
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A dye-binding method using Acid Orange 12 was investigated regarding its suitability for the quantification of available lysine, as a means of monitoring the Maillard reaction in skim milk powders. The method was evaluated by analyzing a wide range of milk powders produced by three different drying methods and stored under various conditions. A pilot-scale freeze-dryer, spray-dryer and drum-dryer were used to produce skim milk powders and the samples were stored at two temperatures (20°C and 30°C) and two relative humidities (33% and 52%) under strictly controlled conditions. Moreover to validate the method, two protein isolates; bovine serum albumin and casein were investigated for their available lysine content. The results demonstrate the suitability of this method for measuring the available lysine in skim milk powders with good precision and high reproducibility. The relative standard deviations obtained from the 125 freeze-dried powders were 1.8%, and those from the 100 drum-dried samples were all 1.9%. The highest variation was found for the spray-dried powders, which showed relative standard deviations between 0.9% and 6.7%.
  • Aalaei, Kataneh, et al. (författare)
  • Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; A review
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1040-8398. ; 59:12, s. 1829-1839
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance. Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.
  • Aalaei, Kataneh, et al. (författare)
  • Storage stability of freeze-dried, spray-dried and drum-dried skim milk powders evaluated by available lysine
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: LWT - Food Science and Technology. - : Elsevier. - 0023-6438. ; 73, s. 675-682
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Formation of Maillard products and the influencing factors, which are of crucial importance for both manufacturers and consumers, are still not fully understood. Thus in this study available lysine was used as a marker to monitor the extent of Maillard reactions in freeze-dried, spray-dried and drum-dried skim milk powders during 200 days of storage at highly controlled atmospheres. Storage variables included two temperatures (20 °C, 30 °C) and two relative humidities (33%, 52%). The available lysine in five replicates was quantified at pre-determined intervals by a dye-binding method using Acid-orange 12, validated in our previous work. Findings of this study show that temperature and relative humidity during storage have a profound influence on the rate of available lysine loss. Choice of the drying technology as the other investigated variable also had a significant impact. The drying process least affected the available lysine content in freeze-dried powders, followed by spray-dried and drum-dried powders. Storage at 52% relative humidity and 30 °C for 200 days led to a 39.2–45.9% decrease in the available lysine content, regardless of the drying of skim milk powder, while the powders stored at 33% relative humidity and 20 °C did not show a significant loss during the same period of time.
  • Aalaei, Kataneh, et al. (författare)
  • The Impact of Different Drying Techniques and Controlled Storage on the Development of Advanced Glycation End Products in Skim Milk Powders Using Isotope Dilution ESI-LC-MS/MS
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Food and Bioprocess Technology. - : Springer. - 1935-5130. ; 10:9, s. 1704-1714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of different drying techniques and storage conditions on the formation of carboxymethyl lysine (CML) as an advanced glycation end product (AGE) was investigated in various pilot-scale produced skim milk powders (SMP). CML, an indicator of advanced stages of the Maillard reaction, was analyzed by isotope dilution ESI-LC-MS/MS after drying and at intervals during storage for 200 days. The aim of this study is to increase the awareness that the development of AGEs can be hindered by controlled storage, which is mostly neglected at the domestic level by the consumers. Pilot-scale freeze-dryer, spray-dryer, and drum-dryer were utilized for manufacturing SMPs. The storage was designed in such a way that it simulated how an average consumer keeps the dried products at home, specifically after opening the packages and how the products may be exposed to unfavorable conditions. To do so, four storage conditions including two temperatures (20 °C, 30 °C) and two relative humidities RH (33%, 52%) were studied and CML formation was monitored using LC-MS/MS. Our results show that the spray-dried samples developed two times higher CML after 200 days, compared to the freeze-dried samples, and this value was 1.6 times for the drum-dried samples. Storage at 52% RH developed 9.8–10 times more CML in the samples, in comparison with 33% RH, at the same storage temperature (P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that AGEs, molecules suspected to be involved in risks factors for auto-immune diseases, may be formed during storage of SMPs after opening the packages by the consumers.
  • Aballay, Erwin (författare)
  • Rhizobacteria associated to Vitis vinifera and their effect on the control of Xiphinema index, Meloidogyne ethiopica and Vitis growth
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of the most important pests affecting the growth of vineyards due to the destruction of new roots. Several species are associated with this problem, the most important being the ectoparasite Xiphinema index and the endoparasite Meloidogyne ethiopica. The search for new pest and disease control methods based on bioantagonist microorganisms is an important aspect of modern agriculture and the development of tools based on the use of rhizobacteria is becoming a widely evaluated alternative. The present study on suppressive soils started with a survey undertaken in productive Chilean vineyards to explore the younger roots of grapevines and identify the presence of rhizobacteria. More than 1800 soils were surveyed and a set of 11 vineyards were selected and considered suitable for bacteria isolation, as they showed low densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. A total of 400 bacterial isolates in 25 genera were obtained using tryptic soy broth agar and identified with fatty acid profiling. Two of the most frequently isolated species were Pseudomonas putida (35.1%) and P. fluorescens (6.1%). The effect of these isolates on the parasitism and reproduction of X. index was assessed through assays using potted vine plants (cv. Thompson Seedless) and a bacterial suspension containing 1×106 CFU/mL. Some isolates from Bacillus megaterium, B. brevis, B. mycoides, B. sphaericus, B. thuringiensis, Pseudomonas corrugata, P. putida, P. alcaligenes, P. savastanoi, P. fluorescens, P. pseudoalcaligenes, P. viridiflava, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia plymuthica, Cytophaga johnsonae, Rahnella aquatilis, Stenotrophomonas sp., Variovorax paradoxus and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens reduced root damage and suppressed populations. Isolates of B. brevis, Comamonas acidovorans, B. megaterium, Pantoea agglomerans and P. savastanoi increased plant growth or root weight, but did not control nematodes. Most of the culture filtrates obtained from isolates from four vineyards were effective in killing X. index and decreasing egg hatching, which was not related to damage or population control. It was estimated that 89, 32 and 16% of the isolates were effective against X. index under supernatant conditions, in potted plants growing in sterile substrate and in potted plants growing in field soil, respectively. Sixteen bacterial isolates previously assessed were also evaluated on M. ethiopica in vine cv. Chardonnay. Seven isolates (Serratia marcescens, C. acidovorans, P. agglomerans, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, B. mycoides, Alcaligenes piechaudii and S. plymuthica) decreased damage or reproduction, showing that different species of nematodes can respond differently to a particular isolate.
  • Abarenkov, Kessy, et al. (författare)
  • PlutoF—a web based workbench for ecological and taxonomic research, with an online implementation for fungal ITS sequences
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Evolutionary Bioinformatics. - 1176-9343. ; 6, s. 189-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA sequences accumulating in the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases (INSD) form a rich source of information for taxonomic and ecological meta-analyses. However, these databases include many erroneous entries, and the data itself is poorly annotated with metadata, making it difficult to target and extract entries of interest with any degree of precision. Here we describe the web-based workbench PlutoF, which is designed to bridge the gap between the needs of contemporary research in biology and the existing software resources and databases. Built on a relational database, PlutoF allows remote-access rapid submission, retrieval, and analysis of study, specimen, and sequence data in INSD as well as for private datasets though web-based thin clients. In contrast to INSD, PlutoF supports internationally standardized terminology to allow very specific annotation and linking of interacting specimens and species. The sequence analysis module is optimized for identification and analysis of environmental ITS sequences of fungi, but it can be modified to operate on any genetic marker and group of organisms. The workbench is available at http://plutof.ut.ee.
  • Abarenkov, Kessy, et al. (författare)
  • Protax-fungi: A web-based tool for probabilistic taxonomic placement of fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - 0028-646X .- 1469-8137. ; 220:2, s. 517-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2018 New Phytologist Trust. Incompleteness of reference sequence databases and unresolved taxonomic relationships complicates taxonomic placement of fungal sequences. We developed Protax-fungi, a general tool for taxonomic placement of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and implemented it into the PlutoF platform of the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi. With empirical data on root- and wood-associated fungi, Protax-fungi reliably identified (with at least 90% identification probability) the majority of sequences to the order level but only around one-fifth of them to the species level, reflecting the current limited coverage of the databases. Protax-fungi outperformed the Sintax and Rdb classifiers in terms of increased accuracy and decreased calibration error when applied to data on mock communities representing species groups with poor sequence database coverage. We applied Protax-fungi to examine the internal consistencies of the Index Fungorum and UNITE databases. This revealed inconsistencies in the taxonomy database as well as mislabelling and sequence quality problems in the reference database. The according improvements were implemented in both databases. Protax-fungi provides a robust tool for performing statistically reliable identifications of fungi in spite of the incompleteness of extant reference sequence databases and unresolved taxonomic relationships.
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