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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES) hsv:(Basic Medicine) "

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  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal-cortex function in aging
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 107:52, s. 22682-22686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross-sectional estimates of age-related changes in brain structure and function were compared with 6-y longitudinal estimates. The results indicated increased sensitivity of the longitudinal approach as well as qualitative differences. Critically, the cross-sectional analyses were suggestive of age-related frontal overrecruitment, whereas the longitudinal analyses revealed frontal underrecruitment with advancing age. The cross-sectional observation of overrecruitment reflected a select elderly sample. However, when followed over time, this sample showed reduced frontal recruitment. These findings dispute inferences of true age changes on the basis of age differences, hence challenging some contemporary models of neurocognitive aging, and demonstrate age-related decline in frontal brain volume as well as functional response.
  • Lindberg, Frida A., et al. (författare)
  • SLC38A10 Deficiency in Mice Affects Plasma Levels of Threonine and Histidine in Males but Not in Females : A Preliminary Characterization Study of SLC38A10(-/-) Mice
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Genes. - : MDPI. - 2073-4425 .- 2073-4425. ; 14:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Solute carriers belong to the biggest group of transporters in the human genome, but more knowledge is needed to fully understand their function and possible role as therapeutic targets. SLC38A10, a poorly characterized solute carrier, is preliminary characterized here. By using a knockout mouse model, we studied the biological effects of SLC38A10 deficiency in vivo. We performed a transcriptomic analysis of the whole brain and found seven differentially expressed genes in SLC38A10-deficient mice (Gm48159, Nr4a1, Tuba1c, Lrrc56, mt-Tp, Hbb-bt and Snord116/9). By measuring amino acids in plasma, we found lower levels of threonine and histidine in knockout males, whereas no amino acid levels were affected in females, suggesting that SLC38A10(-/-) might affect sexes differently. Using RT-qPCR, we investigated the effect of SLC38A10 deficiency on mRNA expression of other SLC38 members, Mtor and Rps6kb1 in the brain, liver, lung, muscle, and kidney, but no differences were found. Relative telomere length measurement was also taken, as a marker for cellular age, but no differences were found between the genotypes. We conclude that SLC38A10 might be important for keeping amino acid homeostasis in plasma, at least in males, but no major effects were seen on transcriptomic expression or telomere length in the whole brain.
  • Brattström, L, et al. (författare)
  • Pyridoxine reduces cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and increases antithrombin III activity in 80-year-old men with low plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686 .- 0036-5513. ; 50:8, s. 873-877
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously observed that pyridoxine treatment reduced plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations and increased antithrombin III (AT III) activity in atherosclerotic patients with subnormal plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) levels. In order to confirm these results, we selected 17 males with low plasma PLP levels from a group of 122 80-year-old males in whom PLP has been determined. After supplementation with 120 mg of pyridoxine per day for 8 weeks their mean plasma TC and LDL cholesterol concentrations were decreased by 10% (p less than 0.01) and 17% (p less than 0.001), respectively. There was no effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides but plasma AT III activity was increased by 6% (p less than 0.05). The mechanism by which pyridoxine acts is unclear but it is hypothesized that pyridoxine-derived PLP may enhance the catabolism of LDL and the activity of AT III by inhibiting their glycosylation.
  • Ernsth Bravell, Marie, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • How to assess frailty and the need for care? Report from the Study of Health and Drugs in the Elderly (SHADES) in community dwellings in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. - : Elsevier. - 1872-6976 .- 0167-4943. ; 53:1, s. 40-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Knowledge about the need for care of elderly individuals in community dwellings and the factors affecting their needs and support is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the frailty of a population of elderly individuals living in community dwellings in Sweden in relation to co-morbidity, use of drugs, and risk of severe conditions such as malnutrition, pressure ulcers, and falls. In 2008, 315 elderly individuals living in community dwellings were interviewed and examined as part of the SHADES-study. The elderly demonstrated co-morbidity (a mean of three diseases) and polypharmacy (an average of seven drugs). More than half the sample was at risk for malnutrition, one third was at risk for developing pressure ulcers, and nearly all (93%) had an increased risk of falling and a great majority had cognitive problems. Age, pulse pressure, body mass index, and specific items from the modified Norton scale (MNS), the Downton fall risk index (DFRI), and the mini nutritional assessment (MNA-SF) were related to different outcomes, defining the need for care and frailty. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a single set of items useful for understanding the need for care and to improve individual based care in community dwellings. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Westerlind, Björn, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics is associated with falls in nursing home residents : a longitudinal cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - : Springer. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319. ; 31:8, s. 1078-1095
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundFalls and related injuries are common among older people, and several drug classes are considered to increase fall risk.AimsThis study aimed to investigate the association between the use of certain drug classes and falls in older nursing home residents in Sweden, and relate these to different age groups.MethodsInformation on falls that occurred in the previous year and regular use of possible fall risk drugs including non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (zopiclone and zolpidem) was collected from 331 nursing home residents during 2008–2011. Over the following 6 months, the occurrence of serious falls, requiring a physician visit or hospital care, was registered. Association between serious falls and drug use was compared between an older (≥ 85 years) and a younger group.ResultsAn increased fall risk (Downton Fall Risk Index ≥ 3) was found in 93% of the study subjects (aged 65–101 years). Baseline data indicated an association between falls that occurred in the previous year and regular use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (p = 0.005), but not with the other studied drug classes. During the following 6 months, an association between use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics and serious falls in the older group (p = 0.017, odds ratio 4.311) was found. No association was found between the other studied drug classes and serious falls.DiscussionThese results indicate an association between falls and the use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, compounds that previously have been considered generally well-tolerated in older people.ConclusionsCaution is advocated when using non-benzodiazepine hypnotics regularly in older people living in nursing homes.
  • Sukhovey, Yurij G., et al. (författare)
  • Functional Conjugation of the Different Regulatory Responses to the Stress Stimuli in Healthy Human Subjects
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Open Journal of Applied Sciences. - : Scientific Research Publishing, Inc.. - 2165-3917 .- 2165-3925. ; 6, s. 489-500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Present article discusses the physiological mechanisms of the state employees adaptation duringactive training in temporary groups. It is suggested that adaptive mechanisms to adverse effectsmay be studied basing on the concept of functional isomorphism of the psychic and immune systems.Adaptive mechanisms were studied through the monitoring of the stress factors’ impact upon thelaw enforcement officers when training outside the places of permanent deployment. The specificpurpose of present study was to evaluate the physiological indicators of the psychic, immune andendocrine systems dynamics at different stages of adaptation of the live organism to a stressfulsituation, hoping to get better insight into possible relations between psychic and immune domains.Through monitoring of the dynamics of the endocrine and immune responses to the psychic stimuli,it was possible to correlate the stages of the stress onset to the phases of specific immune reactions.Strong correlations between the parameters characterizing activation of the psychic and immuneresponses support the hypothesis of the presence of “strong cooperation” between psychic andimmune domains. It supports earlier hypothesis that we are monitoring
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X .- 1078-8956. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
  • Bergman, Penny, et al. (författare)
  • Age-related decline in senses and cognition : A Review
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Senses and Sciences. - 2284-2489. ; 8:2, s. 1264-1292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Age-related decline in the senses is well-known, with a decline in the sensitivity of all senses having been observed. Decline in the senses can be connected to different neurological disorders and cognitive function and may even be a possible predictor of death.  Aim: The aim of this narrative review was to find and explore recent literature on the covariation between age-related decline in the different senses and co-existing effects on cognitive ability and quality of life.  Results and Discussion: Six themes could be identified, these were: “Decline due to normal ageing?”, “Technical aids and solutions”, “Wellbeing”, “Memory training”, “Verbal exercises” and “Sensory training”. Large differences between the different senses were obtained. However, the senses showed similar patterns in the different themes.  Conclusion: It could be concluded that there are many similarities concerning the connections between the decline in individual senses and cognition and memory. Measurements of wellbeingand quality of life are common in the evaluation of the senses, and all types of decline have an impact on activities in daily life.
  • Aljeaidi, Muhamad S., et al. (författare)
  • The association between polypharmacy and cognitive ability in older adults : A national cohort study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. - : Elsevier BV. - 1551-7411 .- 1934-8150. ; 18:3, s. 2505-2509
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Polypharmacy, the use of multiple medications by one individual, may be associated with adverse health outcomes including poor cognition. However, it remains unclear whether a longitudinal relationship exists.Objectives: To investigate the association between polypharmacy and 3-year cognitive ability in older adults.Methods: A longitudinal cohort study of older adults 65 years and older, residing in the community, who participated in waves 12 (2012), 13 (2013) and 16 (2016) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics (HILDA) Survey was conducted. Polypharmacy was defined as the regular use of 5 or more prescription medications. Cognitive ability was assessed using backwards digit span test (BDS), 25-item version of the National Adult Reading Test (NART-25) and symbol-digit modalities test (SDM). Linear regression was used to test the longitudinal association between polypharmacy and cognitive test scores at 3 years. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, and baseline cognitive test scores.Results: A total of 2141 participants (mean age 72.9 years, 54.4% female) were included in the study sample. Polypharmacy was present in 27.3%. After adjusting for potential confounders, polypharmacy was negatively associated with cognitive ability at 3 years: BDS: −0.067 (95% CI = −0.353 to −0.051), NART-25: −0.071 (95% CI = −1.428 to −0.294), SDM: −0.073 (95% CI = −2.960 to −0.696).Conclusion: Polypharmacy was associated with poorer cognitive ability at 3 years, even after adjusting for comorbidities and other confounders. Future research should consider the long-term impact of polypharmacy on cognitive ability, and identify strategies to optimise medication use and cognition in older adults.
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