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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES) hsv:(Basic Medicine) hsv:(Physiology) "

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES) hsv:(Basic Medicine) hsv:(Physiology)

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  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal-cortex function in aging
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 107:52, s. 22682-22686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross-sectional estimates of age-related changes in brain structure and function were compared with 6-y longitudinal estimates. The results indicated increased sensitivity of the longitudinal approach as well as qualitative differences. Critically, the cross-sectional analyses were suggestive of age-related frontal overrecruitment, whereas the longitudinal analyses revealed frontal underrecruitment with advancing age. The cross-sectional observation of overrecruitment reflected a select elderly sample. However, when followed over time, this sample showed reduced frontal recruitment. These findings dispute inferences of true age changes on the basis of age differences, hence challenging some contemporary models of neurocognitive aging, and demonstrate age-related decline in frontal brain volume as well as functional response.
  • Lindberg, Frida A., et al. (författare)
  • SLC38A10 Deficiency in Mice Affects Plasma Levels of Threonine and Histidine in Males but Not in Females : A Preliminary Characterization Study of SLC38A10(-/-) Mice
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Genes. - : MDPI. - 2073-4425 .- 2073-4425. ; 14:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Solute carriers belong to the biggest group of transporters in the human genome, but more knowledge is needed to fully understand their function and possible role as therapeutic targets. SLC38A10, a poorly characterized solute carrier, is preliminary characterized here. By using a knockout mouse model, we studied the biological effects of SLC38A10 deficiency in vivo. We performed a transcriptomic analysis of the whole brain and found seven differentially expressed genes in SLC38A10-deficient mice (Gm48159, Nr4a1, Tuba1c, Lrrc56, mt-Tp, Hbb-bt and Snord116/9). By measuring amino acids in plasma, we found lower levels of threonine and histidine in knockout males, whereas no amino acid levels were affected in females, suggesting that SLC38A10(-/-) might affect sexes differently. Using RT-qPCR, we investigated the effect of SLC38A10 deficiency on mRNA expression of other SLC38 members, Mtor and Rps6kb1 in the brain, liver, lung, muscle, and kidney, but no differences were found. Relative telomere length measurement was also taken, as a marker for cellular age, but no differences were found between the genotypes. We conclude that SLC38A10 might be important for keeping amino acid homeostasis in plasma, at least in males, but no major effects were seen on transcriptomic expression or telomere length in the whole brain.
  • Sukhovey, Yurij G., et al. (författare)
  • Functional Conjugation of the Different Regulatory Responses to the Stress Stimuli in Healthy Human Subjects
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Open Journal of Applied Sciences. - : Scientific Research Publishing, Inc.. - 2165-3917 .- 2165-3925. ; 6, s. 489-500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Present article discusses the physiological mechanisms of the state employees adaptation duringactive training in temporary groups. It is suggested that adaptive mechanisms to adverse effectsmay be studied basing on the concept of functional isomorphism of the psychic and immune systems.Adaptive mechanisms were studied through the monitoring of the stress factors’ impact upon thelaw enforcement officers when training outside the places of permanent deployment. The specificpurpose of present study was to evaluate the physiological indicators of the psychic, immune andendocrine systems dynamics at different stages of adaptation of the live organism to a stressfulsituation, hoping to get better insight into possible relations between psychic and immune domains.Through monitoring of the dynamics of the endocrine and immune responses to the psychic stimuli,it was possible to correlate the stages of the stress onset to the phases of specific immune reactions.Strong correlations between the parameters characterizing activation of the psychic and immuneresponses support the hypothesis of the presence of “strong cooperation” between psychic andimmune domains. It supports earlier hypothesis that we are monitoring
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X .- 1078-8956. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
  • Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta, et al. (författare)
  • Are Nutrition-Related Knowledge and Attitudes Reflected in Lifestyle and Health Among Elderly People? A Study Across Five European Countries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-042X .- 1664-042X. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Nutrition-related knowledge (NRK) and nutrition-related attitudes (NRAs) are necessary for dietary changes toward healthier dietary patterns. In turn, healthier dietary patterns can be beneficial in maintaining health of older adults. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether NRK and NRAs were associated with lifestyle and health features among older adults (65+ years) from five European countries (France, Italy, Poland, the Netherlands and United Kingdom). Methods: Within the European project NU-AGE, 1,144 healthy elderly volunteers (65-79 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: intervention (NU-AGE diet) or control. After 1-year of follow-up, both NRK and NRAs were assessed during exit interviews, in combination with a number of lifestyle and health variables (e.g., physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, BMI, self-assessed health status). Multivariable linear regression models were used in data analysis. Results: In the NU-AGE study sample, good NRK was associated with lower BMI and higher physical activity. More positive NRAs were related to lower BMI and self-reported very good or good appetite. Moreover, both NRK and NRAs were associated with some socio-economic determinants, like financial situation, age, education, living area (for NRK), and country (for NRAs). Participants in the intervention group showed a better NRK (beta = 0 367 [95% CI 0.117; 0.617], p = 0.004) and more positive NRAs beta = 0.838 [95% CI 0.318, 1.358], p = 0.002) than those in the control group. Higher self-evaluated knowledge was also significantly related to more positive NRAs (p < 0.001). The most popular sources of nutrition information were food labels, books and magazines on health, the dietitian and the doctor's office, although their importance varied significantly among countries, and, to a lesser extent, between women and men and between intervention and control group. Conclusion: Higher NRK and NRA scores were associated with lower BMI and higher physical activity level. Therefore, a good nutrition-related knowledge and positive nutrition-related attitudes can strongly and positively influence the health status and quality of life among the older population. These results offer a great opportunity for policy makers to implement educational programs in order to counteract the epidemic of obesity and to improve the health span of European population.
  • Bhandage, Amol K., 1988- (författare)
  • Glutamate and GABA signalling components in the human brain and in immune cells
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the principal excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). They both can activate their ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate activates ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGlu - AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors) and GABA activates GABA-A receptors which are modulated by many types of drugs and substances including alcohol. Using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, I have shown that iGlu and/or GABA-A receptor subunits were expressed in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (HDG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), central amygdala (CeA), caudate and putamen of the human brain and their expression was altered by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. It indicates that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission may have been altered in the brain of human alcoholics. It is possible that changes in one type of neurotransmitter system may drive changes in another. These brain regions also play a role in brain reward system. Any changes in them may lead to changes in the normal brain functions.Apart from the CNS, glutamate and GABA are also present in the blood and can be synthesised by pancreatic islet cells and immune cells. They may act as immunomodulators of circulating immune cells and can affect immune function through glutamate and GABA receptors. I found that T cells from human, rat and mouse lymph nodes expressed the mRNAs and proteins for specific GABA-A receptor subunits. GABA-evoked transient and tonic currents recorded using the patch clamp technique demonstrate the functional GABA-A channel in T cells. Furthermore, the mRNAs for specific iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptor subunits and chloride cotransporters were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men, non-pregnant women, healthy and depressed pregnant women. The results indicate that the expression of iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptors is related to gender, pregnancy and mental health and support the notion that glutamate and GABA receptors may modulate immune function. Intra- and interspecies variability exists in the expression and it is further influenced by physiological conditions.
  • Birnir, Bryndis, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of sub-cellular location and intracellular neuronal proteins on properties of GABA(A) receptors
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Current Pharmaceutical Design. - : Bentham Science Publishers. - 1381-6128 .- 1873-4286. ; 13:31, s. 3169-3177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most studies of GABA(A) receptor accessory proteins have focused on trafficking, clustering and phosphorylation state of the channel-forming subunits and as a result a number of proteins and mechanisms have been identified that can influence the GABA(A) channel expression and function in the cell plasma membrane. In the light of a growing list of intracellular and transmembrane neuronal proteins shown to affect the fate, function and pharmacology of the GABA(A) receptors in neurons, the concept of what constitutes the native GABA(A) receptor complex may need to be re-examined. It is perhaps more appropriate to consider the associated proteins or some of them to be parts of the receptor channel complex in the capacity of ancillary proteins. Here we highlight some of the effects the intracellular environment has on the GABA-activated channel function and pharmacology. The studies demonstrate the need for co-expression of accessory proteins with the GABA(A) channel-forming subunits in heterologous expression systems in order to obtain the full repertoire of GABA(A) receptors characteristics recorded in the native neuronal environment. Further studies e.g. on gene-modified animal models are needed for most of the accessory proteins to establish their significance in normal physiology and in pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric diseases. The challenge remains to elucidate the effects that the accessory proteins and processes (e.g. phosphorylation) plus the sub-cellular location have on the "fine-tuning" of the functional and pharmacological properties of the GABA(A) receptor channels.
  • Eghbali, M, et al. (författare)
  • Hippocampal GABA(A) channel conductance increased by diazepam
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 388:6637, s. 71-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Benzodiazepines, which are widely used clinically for relief of anxiety and for sedation, are thought to enhance synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system by increasing the open probability of chloride channels activated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Here we show that the benzodiazepine diazepam can also increase the conductance of GABAA channels activated by low concentrations of GABA (0.5 or 5 microM) in rat cultured hippocampal neurons. Before exposure to diazepam, chloride channels activated by GABA had conductances of 8 to 53pS. Diazepam caused a concentration-dependent and reversible increase in the conductance of these channels towards a maximum conductance of 70-80 pS and the effect was as great as 7-fold in channels of lowest initial conductance. Increasing the conductance of GABAA channels tonically activated by low ambient concentrations of GABA in the extracellular environment may be an important way in which these drugs depress excitation in the central nervous system. That any drug has such a large effect on single channel conductance has not been reported previously and has implications for models of channel structure and conductance.
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