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1.
  • Schmidt, Manuela, et al. (författare)
  • Doctoral students' well-being : a literature review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1748-2623 .- 1748-2631. ; 13:1, s. 1-14
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Doctoral student well-being is an important matter that shapes the well-being of academics throughout their careers. Given that well-being has been found to be closely related to employee productivity and efficiency, strategies associated with maintaining well-being during PhD studies might be crucial for higher education, its outcomes and—just as importantly—for a balanced life of PhD students.Method: Based on 17 studies, this literature review critically assesses the literature on doctoral student well-being.Results: Theoretical models, concepts of well-being, and methods applied are discussed, as are the results of the articles. The reviewed studies are then discussed based on a SWOT analysis addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed research as well as the identified opportunities and threats, which can be used as a basis for future research. Based on the review findings and the SWOT analysis, a multidimensional view of the well-being of doctoral students is proposed.Conclusions: The study proposes a more student-centred approach to meeting doctoral students’ needs, and the enhancement of doctoral student well-being in order, as a long-term goal, to improve academics’ well-being and productivity.
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  • Nilsson, Maria H, et al. (författare)
  • Fatigue in Parkinson's Disease: Measurement Properties of a Generic and a Condition-specific Rating Scale.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. - : Elsevier. - 1873-6513 .- 0885-3924. ; 46:5, s. 737-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: High-quality fatigue rating scales are needed to advance the understanding of fatigue and determine the efficacy of interventions. Several fatigue scales are used in Parkinson's disease, but few have been tested using modern psychometric methodology (Rasch analysis). OBJECTIVES: To examine the measurement properties of the generic Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale and the condition-specific 16-item Parkinson Fatigue Scale (PFS-16) using Rasch analysis. METHODS: Postal survey data (n=150; 47% women; mean age 70 years) were Rasch analyzed. The PFS-16 scores were tested according to both the original polytomous and the suggested alternative dichotomized scoring methods. RESULTS: The PFS-16 showed overall Rasch model fit, whereas the FACIT-F showed signs of misfit, which probably was the result of a sleepiness-related item and mixing of positively/negatively worded items. There was no differential item functioning by disease duration but by fatigue status (greater likelihood of needing to sleep or rest during the day among people classified as nonfatigued) in the PFS-16 and FACIT-F. However, this did not impact total score-based estimated person measures. Targeting and reliability (≥0.86) were good, but the dichotomized PFS-16 showed compromised measurement precision. Polytomous and dichotomized PFS-16 and FACIT-F scores identified six, three, and four statistically distinct sample strata, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found general support for the measurement properties of both scales. However, polytomous PFS-16 scores exhibited advantages compared with dichotomous PFS-16 and FACIT-F scores. Dichotomization of item responses compromises measurement precision and the ability to separate people, and should be avoided.
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  • Gustafsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term outcome for ADL following the health-promoting RCT-Elderly persons in the risk zone
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The Gerontologist. - : Oxford University Press. - 0016-9013 .- 1758-5341. ; 53:4, s. 654-663
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To examine independence in activities of daily living (ADL) at the 1- and 2-year followups of the health-promoting study Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone. Design and Method: A randomized, three-armed, single-blind, and controlled study. A representative sample of 459 independent and community-dwelling older adults, 80 years and older, were included. A preventive home visit was compared with four weekly multiprofessional senior group meetings including a follow-up home visit. Results: Analysis showed a significant difference in favor of the senior meetings in postponing dependence in ADL at the 1-year follow-up (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-3.10) and also in reducing dependence in three (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.31-0.86) and four or more ADL (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22-0.72) at the 2-year follow-up. A preventive home visit reduced dependence in two (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.24-0.68) and three or more ADL (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.17-0.80) after 1 year. Implications: A long-term evaluation of Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone showed that both senior meetings and a preventive home visit reduced the extent of dependence in ADL after 1 year. The senior meetings were superior to a preventive home visit since additional significant effects were seen after 2 years. To further enhance the long-term effects of the senior meetings and support the process of self-change in health behavior, it is suggested that booster sessions might be a good way of reinforcing the intervention.
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  • Aamodt, Ina Thon, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Care Monitoring of Heart Failure Symptoms and Lung Impedance at Home Following Hospital Discharge: Longitudinal Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 22:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Self-care is key to the daily management of chronic heart failure (HF). After discharge from hospital, patients may struggle to recognize and respond to worsening HF symptoms. Failure to monitor and respond to HF symptoms may lead to unnecessary hospitalizations. Objective: This study aimed to (1) determine the feasibility of lung impedance measurements and a symptom diary to monitor HF symptoms daily at home for 30 days following hospital discharge and (2) determine daily changes in HF symptoms of pulmonary edema, lung impedance measurements, and if self-care behavior improves over time when patients use these self-care monitoring tools. Methods: This study used a prospective longitudinal design including patients from cardiology wards in 2 university hospitals-one in Norway and one in Lithuania. Data on HF symptoms and pulmonary edema were collected from 10 participants (mean age 64.5 years; 90% (9/10) male) with severe HF (New York Heart Association classes III and IV) who were discharged home after being hospitalized for an HF condition. HF symptoms were self-reported using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for Heart Failure. Pulmonary edema was measured by participants using a noninvasive lung impedance monitor, the Cardio Set Edema Guard Monitor. Informal caregivers aided the participants with the noninvasive measurements. Results: The prevalence and burden of shortness of breath varied from participants experiencing them daily to never, whereas lung impedance measurements varied for individual participants and the group participants, as a whole. Self-care behavior score improved significantly (P=.007) from a median of 56 (IQR range 22-75) at discharge to a median of 81 (IQR range 72-98) 30 days later. Conclusions: Noninvasive measurement of lung impedance daily and the use of a symptom diary were feasible at home for 30 days in HF patients. Self-care behavior significantly improved after 30 days of using a symptom diary and measuring lung impedance at home. Further research is needed to determine if daily self-care monitoring of HF signs and symptoms, combined with daily lung impedance measurements, may reduce hospital readmissions.
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10.
  • Abelsson, Anna, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • To strengthen self-confidence as a step in improving prehospital youth laymen basic life support
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Emergency Medicine. - : NLM (Medline). - 1471-227X .- 1471-227X. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:A rapid emergency care intervention can prevent the cardiac arrest from resulting in death. In order for Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) to have any real significance for the survival of the patient, it requires an educational effort educating the large masses of people of whom the youth is an important part. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a two-hour education intervention for youth regarding their self-confidence in performing Adult Basic Life Support (BLS).METHODS:A quantitative approach where data consist of a pre- and post-rating of seven statements by 50 participants during an intervention by means of BLS theoretical and practical education.RESULTS:The two-hour training resulted in a significant improvement in the participants' self-confidence in identifying a cardiac arrest (pre 51, post 90), to perform compressions (pre 65, post 91) and ventilations (pre 64, post 86) and use a defibrillator (pre 61, post 81). In addition, to have the self-confidence to be able to perform, and to actually perform, first aid to a person suffering from a traumatic event was significantly improved (pre 54, post 89).CONCLUSION:By providing youth with short education sessions in CPR, their self-confidence can be improved. This can lead to an increased will and ability to identify a cardiac arrest and to begin compressions and ventilations. This also includes having the confidence using a defibrillator. Short education sessions in first aid can also lead to increased self-confidence, resulting in young people considering themselves able to perform first aid to a person suffering from a traumatic event. This, in turn, results in young people perceiveing themselves as willing to commence an intervention during a traumatic event. In summary, when the youth believe in their own knowledge, they will dare to intervene.
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