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  • Schmidt, Manuela, et al. (författare)
  • Doctoral students' well-being : a literature review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1748-2623 .- 1748-2631. ; 13:1, s. 1-14
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Doctoral student well-being is an important matter that shapes the well-being of academics throughout their careers. Given that well-being has been found to be closely related to employee productivity and efficiency, strategies associated with maintaining well-being during PhD studies might be crucial for higher education, its outcomes and—just as importantly—for a balanced life of PhD students.Method: Based on 17 studies, this literature review critically assesses the literature on doctoral student well-being.Results: Theoretical models, concepts of well-being, and methods applied are discussed, as are the results of the articles. The reviewed studies are then discussed based on a SWOT analysis addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed research as well as the identified opportunities and threats, which can be used as a basis for future research. Based on the review findings and the SWOT analysis, a multidimensional view of the well-being of doctoral students is proposed.Conclusions: The study proposes a more student-centred approach to meeting doctoral students’ needs, and the enhancement of doctoral student well-being in order, as a long-term goal, to improve academics’ well-being and productivity.
  • Nilsson, Maria H, et al. (författare)
  • Fatigue in Parkinson's Disease: Measurement Properties of a Generic and a Condition-specific Rating Scale.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. - : Elsevier. - 1873-6513 .- 0885-3924. ; 46:5, s. 737-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: High-quality fatigue rating scales are needed to advance the understanding of fatigue and determine the efficacy of interventions. Several fatigue scales are used in Parkinson's disease, but few have been tested using modern psychometric methodology (Rasch analysis). OBJECTIVES: To examine the measurement properties of the generic Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale and the condition-specific 16-item Parkinson Fatigue Scale (PFS-16) using Rasch analysis. METHODS: Postal survey data (n=150; 47% women; mean age 70 years) were Rasch analyzed. The PFS-16 scores were tested according to both the original polytomous and the suggested alternative dichotomized scoring methods. RESULTS: The PFS-16 showed overall Rasch model fit, whereas the FACIT-F showed signs of misfit, which probably was the result of a sleepiness-related item and mixing of positively/negatively worded items. There was no differential item functioning by disease duration but by fatigue status (greater likelihood of needing to sleep or rest during the day among people classified as nonfatigued) in the PFS-16 and FACIT-F. However, this did not impact total score-based estimated person measures. Targeting and reliability (≥0.86) were good, but the dichotomized PFS-16 showed compromised measurement precision. Polytomous and dichotomized PFS-16 and FACIT-F scores identified six, three, and four statistically distinct sample strata, respectively. CONCLUSION: We found general support for the measurement properties of both scales. However, polytomous PFS-16 scores exhibited advantages compared with dichotomous PFS-16 and FACIT-F scores. Dichotomization of item responses compromises measurement precision and the ability to separate people, and should be avoided.
  • Gustafsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term outcome for ADL following the health-promoting RCT-Elderly persons in the risk zone
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The Gerontologist. - : Oxford University Press. - 0016-9013 .- 1758-5341. ; 53:4, s. 654-663
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To examine independence in activities of daily living (ADL) at the 1- and 2-year followups of the health-promoting study Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone. Design and Method: A randomized, three-armed, single-blind, and controlled study. A representative sample of 459 independent and community-dwelling older adults, 80 years and older, were included. A preventive home visit was compared with four weekly multiprofessional senior group meetings including a follow-up home visit. Results: Analysis showed a significant difference in favor of the senior meetings in postponing dependence in ADL at the 1-year follow-up (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-3.10) and also in reducing dependence in three (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.31-0.86) and four or more ADL (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22-0.72) at the 2-year follow-up. A preventive home visit reduced dependence in two (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.24-0.68) and three or more ADL (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.17-0.80) after 1 year. Implications: A long-term evaluation of Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone showed that both senior meetings and a preventive home visit reduced the extent of dependence in ADL after 1 year. The senior meetings were superior to a preventive home visit since additional significant effects were seen after 2 years. To further enhance the long-term effects of the senior meetings and support the process of self-change in health behavior, it is suggested that booster sessions might be a good way of reinforcing the intervention.
  • Haak, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of participation on mortality in very old age among community-living people in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Aging clinical and experimental research. - : Kurtis. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319. ; 31:2, s. 265-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Participation in everyday life and society is generally seen as essential for health-related outcomes and acknowledged to affect older people’s well-being. Aims: To investigate if aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation influence on mortality among very old single living people in Sweden. Methods: ENABLE-AGE Survey Study data involving single-living participants in Sweden (N = 314, aged 81–91 years), followed over 10 years were used. Multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and health-related variables were used to analyse specific items influencing mortality. Results: Participation in performance- or togetherness-oriented activities was found to significantly influence mortality [HR 0.62 (0.44–0.88), P value 0.006, and HR 0.72 (0.53–0.97), P value 0.031, respectively]. Talking to neighbours and following local politics had a protective effect on mortality, speaking to relatives on the phone (CI 1.10–2.02) and performing leisure activities together with others (CI 1.10–2.00) had the opposite influence. That is, those performing the latter activities were significantly more likely to die earlier. Discussion: The main contribution of this study is the facet of the results showing that aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation have a protective effect on mortality in very old age. This is important knowledge for designing health promotion and preventive efforts for the ageing population. Moreover, it constitutes a contribution to the development of instruments capturing aspects of participation influencing on mortality. Conclusion: In the development of health promotion and preventive efforts the inclusion of participation facets could be considered in favour of potential positive influences on longevity.
  • Aamodt, Ina Thon, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Care Monitoring of Heart Failure Symptoms and Lung Impedance at Home Following Hospital Discharge: Longitudinal Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 22:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Self-care is key to the daily management of chronic heart failure (HF). After discharge from hospital, patients may struggle to recognize and respond to worsening HF symptoms. Failure to monitor and respond to HF symptoms may lead to unnecessary hospitalizations. Objective: This study aimed to (1) determine the feasibility of lung impedance measurements and a symptom diary to monitor HF symptoms daily at home for 30 days following hospital discharge and (2) determine daily changes in HF symptoms of pulmonary edema, lung impedance measurements, and if self-care behavior improves over time when patients use these self-care monitoring tools. Methods: This study used a prospective longitudinal design including patients from cardiology wards in 2 university hospitals-one in Norway and one in Lithuania. Data on HF symptoms and pulmonary edema were collected from 10 participants (mean age 64.5 years; 90% (9/10) male) with severe HF (New York Heart Association classes III and IV) who were discharged home after being hospitalized for an HF condition. HF symptoms were self-reported using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for Heart Failure. Pulmonary edema was measured by participants using a noninvasive lung impedance monitor, the Cardio Set Edema Guard Monitor. Informal caregivers aided the participants with the noninvasive measurements. Results: The prevalence and burden of shortness of breath varied from participants experiencing them daily to never, whereas lung impedance measurements varied for individual participants and the group participants, as a whole. Self-care behavior score improved significantly (P=.007) from a median of 56 (IQR range 22-75) at discharge to a median of 81 (IQR range 72-98) 30 days later. Conclusions: Noninvasive measurement of lung impedance daily and the use of a symptom diary were feasible at home for 30 days in HF patients. Self-care behavior significantly improved after 30 days of using a symptom diary and measuring lung impedance at home. Further research is needed to determine if daily self-care monitoring of HF signs and symptoms, combined with daily lung impedance measurements, may reduce hospital readmissions.
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