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  • Nilsson, Lisbeth, et al. (författare)
  • Driving to Learn in a Powered Wheelchair: The Process of Learning Joystick Use in People With Profound Cognitive Disabilities
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Occupational Therapy. - : American Occupational Therapy Association. - 0272-9490 .- 1943-7676. ; 65:6, s. 652-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.
  • Björk Skuladottir, Edda, et al. (författare)
  • Translation and validation of Assessment of Work Performance (AWP) into the Icelandic language and culture
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Work. - : IOS Press. - 1875-9270 .- 1051-9815. ; 69:4, s. 1305-1316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Evidence-based services in vocational rehabilitation call for valid and reliable assessments of work performance for intervention planning and safe return to work for individuals with illness or injuries. Assessments that are easy to use, culturally adapted, and in a language professionals and clients understand is important for their utility. Translation and adaption of assessments to new languages and cultures are of importance to maintain high standards of assessments and the quality of services in the vocational rehabilitation setting. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Assessment of Work Performance (AWP), into the Icelandic language and culture. Furthermore, to investigate the content validity and utility of the evaluation instrument. METHODS:The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase, based on the Dual-Panel translation method, included two expert panels performing translation and cultural adaption of the original Swedish AWP. In the second phase field testing of the translated instrument was followed by an online survey among vocational rehabilitation professionals for content validation and utility. RESULTS:The results of the study showed satisfactory opinions from experienced professionals toward the content validity, translation, cultural adaption, and utility of the Icelandic version of the AWP. CONCLUSIONS:The study indicates that the Dual-Panel translation method is a valid method when translating instruments from one language and culture to another. Furthermore, the results of the study imply that the AWP can be regarded as content valid up to an acceptable degree for implementation in vocational rehabilitation services in Iceland.
  • Schmidt, Manuela, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of well-being among female doctoral students in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1748-2623 .- 1748-2631. ; 9:23059
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to explore how female PhD students experience and perceive their well-being. Focus groups were conducted with female PhD students employed at a Swedish university. The study was performed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach based on the concept of the lifeworld, used as both a philosophical perspective and a methodology. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: being true to oneself, being in the sphere of influence, and performing a balancing act. By unfolding these themes, the study shows that perceptions and experiences of well-being in female PhD students are a multifaceted phenomenon and materialize through interaction of different aspects of ‘‘self ’’ (agent) and ‘‘others’’ (structure). As well as illustrating these perceptions and experiences, the study also presents female PhD students’ conceptualization of their well-being, expressed in terms of a white-water rafting metaphor.
  • Manchaiah, Vinaya, et al. (författare)
  • Problems and Life Effects Experienced by Tinnitus Research Study Volunteers : An Exploratory Study Using the ICF Classification
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of american academy of audiology. - Reston, VA, United States : American Academy of Audiology. - 1050-0545 .- 2157-3107. ; 29:10, s. 936-947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tinnitus is one of the most distressing hearing-related symptoms. It is often associated with a range of physiological and psychological complications, such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Hence, approaching tinnitus from a biopsychological perspective may be more appropriate than from purely a biomedical model.Objective: The present studywas aimed at determining the relationship between tinnitus and the problems and life effects experienced by UK-based tinnitus research study volunteers. Open-ended questions were used. Responses were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to understand the impact of tinnitus in a multidimensional manner using a biopsychosocial perspective.Research Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used.Study Sample: Study sample included a sample of 240 adults with tinnitus who were interested in undertaking an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus.Data Collection and Analysis: The data were collated using two open-ended questions. The first focused on problems related to having tinnitus and the second to life effects as a result of tinnitus. Responses were analyzed using a simplified content analysis approach to link concepts to ICF categories in accordance with established linking rules. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare the number of responses between the two questions. The most frequent responses related to body function involved ‘‘emotional functions’’ (b152), ‘‘sleep functions’’ (b134), ‘‘hearing functions’’ (b230), ‘‘sustaining attention’’ (b1400), and ‘‘energy level’’ (b1300). For activity limitations and participation restrictions they were ‘‘communicating with—receiving—spokenmessages’’ (d310), ‘‘socialization’’ (d9205), ‘‘handling stress and other psychological demands’’ (d240), and ‘‘recreation and leisure’’ (d920). The most frequently occurring responses related to environmental factors were ‘‘sound intensity’’ (e2500), ‘‘sound quality’’ (e2501), and ‘‘general products and technology for communication’’ (e1250). ‘‘Coping styles’’ was the most frequently occurring personal factor.Conclusions: The study highlights the use of open-ended questions in gathering useful information about the impact of tinnitus. The responses coded to ICF show that tinnitus impacts many domains, not only particularly body function, but also activity limitations and participation restrictions. The results demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the impact of tinnitus on people affected.Results: There were 764 responses related to problems identified, 797 responses associated with life effects due to tinnitus, and 37 responses that did not fit into any ICF category. No significant differences were observed in the number of responses between the two questions. In addition, no significant association between the number of responses reported and demographic variables was found. Most of the problems and life effects experienced by tinnitus sufferers were related to body function, followed by activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Only a few responses were related to environmental and personal factors.
  • Fagerström, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Everyday Health among Older People : A Comparison between Two Countries with Variant Life Conditions
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Aging Research. - : Hindawi Limited. - 2090-2204 .- 2090-2212. ; 2017
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study described health factors of importance for everyday health, such as pain, tiredness, and sleeping problems, in a cross-national context. Data for persons 60+ years were obtained from the Poverty and Health in Aging study, Bangladesh, and the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Blekinge. The strongest associations with everyday health in Sweden were found for pain and tiredness, while in Bangladesh they were financial status, tiredness, and sleeping problems. As similarities were found regarding the associations of tiredness on everyday health, tiredness may be a universal predictor of everyday health in older adults irrespective of country context.
  • Dunberger, Gail, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer survivors' perception of participation in a long-term follow-up study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of medical ethics. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1473-4257 .- 0306-6800. ; 39:1, s. 41-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Every year medical researchers make contact with a large number of cancer survivors with the aim of evaluating cancer treatment. For this reason we decided to investigate how Swedish cancer survivors perceived their participation in research studies focusing on the long-term consequences of being a survivor of gynaecological or urinary bladder cancer. Data were collected by means of two study-specific postal questionnaires, both consisting of questions covering physical symptoms, well-being and the experience of being a cancer survivor. Both questionnaires also included questions evaluating the participants' experience of being research subjects. The questionnaires were developed in close co-operation with cancer survivors. The study population consisted of 1068 cancer survivors. Of these, 95% (n=1003) reported that they thought the study was valuable and 54% (n=559) that they had been positively affected by participating. Four per cent (n=39) expressed that they had been negatively affected by their participation in the study. The vast majority of the cancer survivors thought that participating in their particular study was valuable.
  • Gerdle, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Who benefits from multimodal rehabilitation - an exploration of pain, psychological distress, and life impacts in over 35,000 chronic pain patients identified in the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain Research. - : DOVE Medical Press Ltd.. - 1178-7090 .- 1178-7090. ; 12, s. 891-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic pain patients frequently suffer from psychological symptoms. There is no consensus concerning the prevalence of severe anxiety and depressive symptoms and the strength of the associations between pain intensity and psychological distress. Although an important aspect of the clinical picture is understanding how the pain condition impacts life, little is known about the relative importance of pain and psychological symptoms for individual's life impact. The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of pain patients; to analyze if pain, psychological distress, and life impact variables influence subgrouping; and to investigate how patients in the subgroups benefit from treatments.Methods: Background variables, pain aspects (intensity/severity and spreading), psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), and two life impact variables (pain interference and perceived life control) were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation for chronic pain patients and analyzed mainly using advanced multivariate methods.Results: Based on >35,000 patients, 35%-40% had severe anxiety or depressive symptoms. Severe psychological distress was associated with being born outside Europe (21%-24% vs 6%-8% in the category without psychological distress) and low education level (20.7%-20.8% vs 26%-27% in the category without psychological distress). Dose relationships existed between the two psychological distress variables and pain aspects, but the explained variances were generally low. Pain intensity/severity and the two psychological distress variables were significantly associated (R-2 =0.40-0.48; P>0.001) with the two life impact variables (pain interference and life control). Two subgroups of patients were identified at baseline (subgroup 1: n=15,901 16,119; subgroup 2: n=20,690-20,981) and the subgroup with the worst situation regarding all variables participated less in an MMRP (51% vs 58%, P<0.001) but showed the largest improvements in outcomes.Conclusion: The results emphasize the need to assess both pain and psychological distress and not take for granted that pain involves high psychological stress in the individual case. Not all patients benefit from MMRP. A better matching between common clinical pictures and the content of MMRPs may help improve results. We only partly found support for treatment resistance in patients with psychological distress burden.
  • Hoffman, Robert D., et al. (författare)
  • Gender differences in self-care for common colds by primary care patients : a European multicenter survey on the prevalence and patterns of practices (the COCO study)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Gender Studies. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 0958-9236 .- 1465-3869. ; 30:7, s. 756-771
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although generally harmless, the common cold disturbs the lives of billions yearly. It is frequently treated by self-care, yet little is known about the effect gender may have on self-care. Our study set out to discover whether self-care for common colds differs by gender. We also wanted to test the 'Man cold' belief: that men 'break down' when they have a cold and suffer more than women when they are sick. We distributed questionnaires asking for a selection of self-care practices in eight categories to 3,240 consecutive patients in 14 Eurasian countries at 27 primary care sites. Of 2,654 patients included, 99% reported engaging in self-care for common colds. Discomfort was reported more frequently by women (74.7% vs. 66.5%, p < 0.001). There were gender differences in several self-care categories. The mean use of self-care items was higher in women than in men (12.0 vs. 10.3, p < 0.001). Women reported a greater variety of self-care items than men. However, more men reported using alcohol (17.8% vs. 8.4%, p < 0.001). This cross-national study documented gender differences in self-care for common colds.
  • Hubertsson, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Sickness absence in musculoskeletal disorders : patients' experiences of interactions with the Social Insurance Agency and health care. A qualitative study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 11:107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Sickness absence has represented a growing public health problem in many Western countries over the last decade. In Sweden disorders of the musculoskeletal system cause approximately one third of all sick leave. The Social Insurance Agency (SIA) and the health care system are important actors in handling the sickness absence process. The objective was to study how patients with personal experience of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders perceived their contact with these actors and what they considered as obstructing or facilitating factors for recovery and return to work in this situation.Methods:In-depth interviews using open-ended questions were conducted with fifteen informants (aged 33-63, 11 women), all with experience of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders and purposefully recruited to represent various backgrounds as regards diagnosis, length of sick leave and return to work. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis.Results:The informants' perceived the interaction with the SIA and health care as ranging from coherent to fragmented. Being on sick leave was described as going through a process of adjustment in both private and working life. This process of adjustment was interactive and included not only the possibilities to adjust work demands and living conditions but also personal and emotional adjustment. The informants' experiences of fragmented interaction reflected a sense that their entire situation was not being taken into account. Coherent interaction was described as facilitating recovery and return to work, while fragmented interaction was described as obstructing this. The complex division of responsibilities within the Swedish rehabilitation system may hamper sickness absentees' possibilities of taking responsibility for their own rehabilitation.Conclusions:This study shows that people on sick leave considered the interaction with the SIA and health care as an important part of the rehabilitation process. The contact with these actors was perceived as affecting recovery and return to work. Working for a more coherent process of rehabilitation and offering professional guidance to patients on sick leave might have an empowering effect.
  • Manchaiah, Vinaya, et al. (författare)
  • Quality and Readability of English-Language Internet Information for Tinnitus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of american academy of audiology. - Reston, VA, United States : American Academy of Audiology. - 1050-0545 .- 2157-3107. ; 30:1, s. 31-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Because of the wealth of information available on the internet and increasing numbers of individuals relying on websites as a primary source of information for health-related questions, it is important that the readability of their content is within the comprehension level of most readers.Objective:The study evaluated the quality and readability of English-language Internet information for tinnitus.Research Design:Analysis of Internet websites on tinnitus.Study Sample:A total of 134 websites with tinnitus information.Data Collection and Analysis:Three key words (i.e., tinnitus, ringing in the ear, and buzzing in the ear) were entered in five country-specific versions of the most commonly used internet search engine in August 2016. For each of the 15 searches, the first 20 relevant websites were examined. After removing duplicates, a total of 134 websites were assessed. Their origin (commercial, nonprofit organization, government, personal, or university), quality (Health On the Net [HON] certification and DISCERN scores), and readability (Flesch Reading Ease score, Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level Formula, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) were assessed.Results:Most websites were of commercial (49.3%) or nonprofit organization (38.8%) origin. Their quality and readability was highly variable. Only 13.5% of websites had HON certification. χ2 analysis showed that there was significant association between website origin and HON certification [χ2(4) = 132.9, p < 0.0001]. The mean DISCERN scores were 2.39. No association between DISCERN scores and website origin was found. Readability measures showed that on average, only people with at least 10‐12 yr of education could read and understand the internet information for tinnitus in websites. Almost all the websites exceeded the most stringent reading level recommended for health information.Conclusions:The results highlight great variability in the quality and readability of health information, specifically for tinnitus in the internet. These findings underscores the need for stakeholders (e.g., web-developers, clinicians) to be aware of this and to develop more user-friendly health information on websites to make it more accessible for people with low literacy.
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