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  • Klompstra, Leonie, 1982- (författare)
  • Physical activity in patients with heart failure : motivations, self-efficacy and the potential of exergaming
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in patients with heart failure (HF). It is essential to explore to what extent and why patients with HF are physically active. Self-efficacy and motivation for physical activity are important in becoming more physically active, but the role of self-efficacy in the relationship between motivation and physical activity in patients with HF is unknown. Alternative approaches to motivate and increase self-efficacy to exercise are needed. One of these alternatives might be using exergames (games to improve physical exercise). Therefore, it is important to obtain more knowledge on the potential of exergaming to increase physical activity.The overall aim was to describe the physical activity in patients with HF, with special focus on motivations and self-efficacy in physical activity, and to describe the potential of exergaming to improve exercise capacity.Methods: Study I (n = 154) and II (n = 101) in this thesis had a cross-sectional survey design. Study III (n = 32) was a 12-week pilot intervention study, including an exergame platform at home, with a pretest-posttest design. Study IV (n = 14) described the experiences of exergaming in patients who participated in the intervention group of a randomized controlled study in which they had access to an exergame platform at home.Results: In total, 34% of the patients with HF had a low level of physical activity, 46% had a moderate level, 23% reported a high level. Higher education, higher selfefficacy, and higher motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Barriers to exercise were reported to be difficult to overcome and psychological motivations were the most important motivations to be physically active. Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. Self-efficacy mediated the relationship between exercise motivation and physical activity; motivation leads to a higher self-efficacy towards physical activity.More than half of the patients significantly increased their exercise capacity after 12 weeks of using an exergame platform at home. Lower NYHA-class and shorter time since diagnosis were factors significantly related to the increase in exercise capacity. The mean time spent exergaming was 28 minutes per day. Having grandchildren and being male were related to more time spent exergaming.The analysis of the qualitative data resulted in three categories describing patients’ experience of exergaming: (i) making exergaming work, (ii) added value of exergaming, (iii) no appeal of exergaming.Conclusion: One-third of the patients with HF had a low level of physical activity in their daily life. Level of education, exercise self-efficacy, and motivation were important factors to take into account when advising patients with HF about physical activity. In addition to a high level of motivation to be physically active, it is important that patients with HF have a high degree of exercise self-efficacy.Exergaming has the potential to increase exercise capacity in patients with HF. The results also showed that this technology might be suitable for some patients while others may prefer other kinds of physical activity.
  • Liljeroos, Maria (författare)
  • Caring needs in patient-partner dyads affected by heart failure : An evaluation of the long-term effects of a dyadic psycho-educational intervention
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: As medical treatment has improved, patients with heart failure (HF) now live longer and care mostly takes place at home with partners providing the main assistance. Taking care of an ill or disabled individual imposes a well-documented burden on the partner’s healthrelated quality of life. The awareness of partners’ burdensome situation is increasing, but few interventions have targeted the needs of patientpartner dyads with HF. The results have been inconclusive and give no clear guidance on how interventional programmes should be designed to improve both patient and partner outcomes.Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of a psychoeducational intervention delivered to patient-partner dyads with HF during long-term follow-up, and to explore the dyads’ perceived caring needs.Methods: The thesis is based on four papers that used both quantitative and qualitative data. Study I and II used a randomized controlled design with a follow-up assessment after 24 months including 155 patientpartner dyads. The control group received care as usual. The intervention group received care as usual, and in addition they participated in the nurse-led psycho-educational intervention. Data was collected using questionnaires before and 24 months after the intervention, in order to determine the long-term effects on patients and partners regarding health related quality of life, perceived control, symptoms of depression and partners’ caregiver burden (I, II). A conceptual health promotion model inspired the intervention. To describe how the model was applied, a qualitative approach analysing nurses’ documentation of the sessions with 71 dyads in the intervention group (III) was used. Study IV has an explorative design. To further explore the dyads’ perceived caring needs, focus groups interviews with 19 patient-partner dyads with heart failure (IV) were performed.Results: The intervention did not have any significant effect on physical or mental health- related quality of life, depressive symptoms, or perceived control over the heart failure among the dyads (I) or caregiver burden in the partners (II) after 24 months. Furthermore, time to first event did not differ significantly between the dyads in the intervention group and the control group (I, II). As for the partners, both the intervention and control group reported decreased physical health between the baseline assessment and the 24-month follow-up (I). The intervention was composed of three components; 1) cognitive 2) supportive, and 3) behavioural component. The analysis of the nurses’ documentation confirmed the coverage of all the components and the analysis revealed a vide range of caring needs among the dyads (III). The dyads described a need to learn about HF to be able to manage everyday life. Regular outpatient clinic visits and access to telephone support were vital and both the patient and the partner need to be present at the clinic visits. Meeting others who are in the same situation and sharing the burden in nurse-led group sessions was proposed as an opportunity to support each other and others (IV).Conclusions: Over the 24-month follow-up period, the intervention had a neutral effect on health- related quality of life, depressive symptoms and perceived control over the HF among the dyads, and on partners’ caregiver burden. Considering the fact that partners serve as a critical extension of the formal healthcare system, and that both patients and partners ask for more support, it will become crucial to find new ways to support dyads affected by heart failure. This thesis may be viewed as a first step in trying to understand dyads’ perceived caring needs, and it can serve as a guide in clinical work and when designing new dyadic interventions.
  • Fältström, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine. - : Sage Publications. - 0363-5465 .- 1552-3365. ; 45:2, s. 377-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).Purpose: This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods: This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.Results: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (P = .837).Conclusion: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.
  • Isaksson, Gunilla, et al. (författare)
  • Women's perception of changes in the social network after a spinal cord injury
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165. ; 27:17, s. 1013-1021
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To describe how women with a spinal cord injury (SCI) perceived changes in the social network, and how these changes affected their ability to participate in occupation. METHOD: Thirteen women, aged 25 to 61 years, with a SCI were interviewed twice. The interviews focused on their ability to participate in occupation, their relations with individuals within the social network, and changes in the social network following the SCI. The analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The women described an emotional need for social support after the SCI to participate in occupation. This was a new experience that required time to adapt to. The women also described a need for practical social support from the social network members to manage meaningful occupation. After the SCI, the women had developed new habits through close cooperation with members in the social network. The women felt that they had become more responsible for the development of their relations. Many relations had improved after the SCI, while some had decreased. The women had also developed new relations with other persons with disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: The women perceived substantial changes in the social network following the SCI, which in several ways affected their ability to participate in occupation. To adapt to their new life situation, the women gradually developed different strategies. The results point out the need to identify persons in the social network that women with SCI develop relations with, and integrate them in the rehabilitation process.
  • Peterson, Gunnel, 1959- (författare)
  • Neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Neck pain and disability are common after whiplash injury. One year after the accident up to 50 % still have symptoms called whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite decades of research the cause of persistent pain and disability are largely unknown and effective treatment and diagnostic tools are lacking. Altered neck muscle function may cause pain and disability, and real-time non-invasive methods that investigate both superficial and deep neck muscle function need to be evaluated.Aim: The general aim of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate mechanical neck muscle function and evaluate effects of three different exercise interventions related to neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury.Method: The thesis comprised two studies, reported in four papers. Study A was a prospective randomized controlled trail with 216 participants. The effects of three exercise interventions; neck-specific exercises, neck-specific exercises with behavioral approach and prescription of physical activity were evaluated. Neck muscle endurance, perceived pain following testing, kinesiophobia and satisfaction with treatment were compared between the three groups (paper I). Study B was an experimental case-control study with participants consecutively recruited from the randomized controlled trial. Deformation and deformation rates in the neck muscles were investigated with real-time ultrasound imaging during ten repetitive arm elevations (paper II-IV). To investigate ventral neck muscles, 26 individuals with WAD were compared with 26 healthy controls (paper II). The dorsal neck muscles were investigated in paper III, including 40 individuals with WAD and 40 controls. In total 46 individuals, 23 with WAD and 23 healthy controls were included in paper IV to develop ventral neck muscle interaction models.Results: Paper I: Participants in the two neck-specific exercise groups (with and without behavioral approach) showed increased dorsal neck muscle endurance (p = 0.003), decreased pain intensity following testing (p = 0.04) and were more satisfied with treatment (p < 0.001) than participants in the prescribed physical activity group. Kinesiophobia did not significantly differ between groups (p > 0.12).Paper II: Deformation and deformation rate showed linear positive relationship between ventral muscle pairs in healthy controls, especially between superficial and deep neck muscles. This relationship was weaker or absent in the WAD group.Paper III: The WAD group had higher deformation rates in the deepest dorsal neck muscles during the first and tenth (only women) arm elevations compared to the control group (p < 0.04). Women in the WAD group showed a weaker linear relationship between the two deepest dorsal neck muscles compared to women in the control group.Paper IV: The results revealed two different ventral neck muscle models in individuals with WAD and healthy controls (R2Y = 0.72, Q2Y = 0.59). The models were capable to detect different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD.Conclusion: Neck-specific exercise intervention with or without a behavioral approach appears to improve neck muscle endurance in individuals with persistent WAD. Decreased pain after the neck muscle endurance test also suggests improved tolerance of load in these two groups. Altered mechanical neck muscle function was revealed in individuals with WAD indicating decreased muscular support for maintain a stable cervical spine during repetitive arm elevations. The results show great promise for improved diagnosis of neck muscle function in WAD.
  • Svanberg, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of emotional distress and pain-related fear on patients with chronic pain : subgroup analysis of patients referred to multimodal rehabilitation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - : Foundation for Rehabilitation Information. - 1650-1977 .- 1651-2081. ; 49:4, s. 354-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Multimodal rehabilitation programmes (MMRP) for chronic pain could be improved by determining which patients do not benefit fully. General distress and pain-related fear may explain variations in the treatment effects of MMRP.DESIGN: Cohort study with a cross-sectional, prospective part.PATIENTS: Chronic musculoskeletal pain patients referred to 2 hospital-based pain rehabilitation clinics.METHODS: The cross-sectional part of this study cluster analyses patients (n = 1,218) with regard to distress and pain-related fear at first consultation in clinical pain rehabilitation and describes differences in external variables between clusters. The prospective part follows the subsample of patients (n = 260) participating in MMRP and describes outcome post-treatment.RESULTS: Four distinct subgroups were found: (i) those with low levels of distress and pain-related fear; (ii) those with high levels of pain-related fear; (iii) those with high levels of distress; and (iv) those with high levels of distress and pain-related fear. These subgroups showed differences in demogra-phics, pain characteristics, quality of life, and acceptance, as well as the degree of MMRP participation and MMRP outcome.CONCLUSION: Among patients with chronic pain referred to MMRP there are subgroups with different profiles of distress and pain-related fear, which are relevant to understanding the adaptation to pain and MMRP outcome. This knowledge may help us to select patients and tailor treatment for better results.
  • Harstäde, Carina Werkander, et al. (författare)
  • Dignity-conserving care actions in palliative care : an integrative review of Swedish research.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0283-9318 .- 1471-6712. ; 32:1, s. 8-23
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous research has proposed that persons in need of palliative care often have a loss of functions and roles that affects social and existential self‐image. Moreover, these individuals also commonly suffer from complex multisymptoms. This, together with the situation of facing an impending death, can lead to a loss of dignity. Therefore, supporting these persons’ dignity is a crucial challenge for professional nurses. The ‘Dignity Care Intervention’ addresses the multidimensionality of dignity by identifying patients’ dignity‐related concerns and suggests care actions to address them. At the present, the Dignity Care Intervention is adapted for implementation in Swedish care settings. Because expressions of dignity are influenced by culture, and an overview of care actions in a Swedish context is lacking, this integrative review aimed to find suggestions from Swedish research literature on what kind of care actions can preserve dignity.Methods: An integrative literature review was conducted using the databases SwePub and SweMed+. Articles published from 2006 to 2015 and theses published from 2000 to 2015 were searched for using the terms ‘dignity’ and ‘palliative care’. Result sections of articles and theses were reviewed for dignity‐conserving care actions synthesised by thematic analysis and categorised under themes and subthemes in Chochinov's model of dignity.Results: Fifteen articles and 18 theses were included together providing suggestions of care actions in all themes and subthemes in the dignity model. Suggested care actions included listening, communication, information, symptom control, facilitating daily living and including patients in decision‐making. Additionally, nurses’ perceptiveness towards the patients was a core approach.Conclusion: The review offers culturally relevant suggestions on how to address specific dignity‐related concerns. The adapted Dignity Care Intervention will be a way for Swedish nurses to provide person‐centred palliative care that will conserve patients’ dignity.
  • Löfqvist, C., et al. (författare)
  • Mobility and mobility-related participation outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1748-3107 .- 1748-3115. ; 7:3, s. 211-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use regarding need for assistance when moving around, frequency of mobility-related participation, easiness/difficulty in mobility during participation, and number of participation aspects performed in everyday life.METHOD: The study was a prospective cohort study, using an instrument focusing on mobility-related participation outcomes of mobility device interventions (NOMO 1.0), at baseline, after 4-months and 1-year use.RESULTS: The results show that the outcomes in terms of participation frequency and easiness in mobility occur in a short time perspective, and that the effects remained stable at 1-year follow-up. The frequency of going for a walk increased most prominently (26%). Even though the majority of the participation aspects were not performed, more often they became easier to perform: 56-91% found that shopping, walking and visiting family/friends were easier. Moreover, independence outdoors and indoors increased.CONCLUSIONS: This small study provides knowledge about the outcomes of powered wheelchairs and scooters in terms of mobility and mobility-related participation in real-life situations. The study supports results from former studies, but even so, larger studies are required in order to provide evidence for the effectiveness of powered wheelchairs and scooters. [Box: see text].
  • Carballeira Suarez, Nivia, et al. (författare)
  • Regaining health and wellbeing after traumatic spinal cord injury
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - : Foundation of Rehabilitation Information. - 1650-1977 .- 1651-2081. ; 45:10, s. 1023-1027
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Traumatic spinal cord injury is typically a devastating event, leading to permanent physical disability. Despite the severity of the condition, many persons with traumatic spinal cord injury manage to lead both active and independent lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience of health and wellbeing of persons living with a traumatic spinal cord injury for at least 20 years. Design and methods: A qualitative design was used. Data was analysed using a phenomenological-hermeneutical method. Rich narratives were obtained from 14 persons with paraplegia due to traumatic spinal cord injury sustained at least 20 years ago. RESULTS: The key finding was that health and wellbeing were attained when persons were able to perceive themselves as being “normal” in everyday relationships and circumstances. The normalization process involved learning to negotiate and/or prevent potentially embarrassing situations by acting in a “parallel world”, covertly “behind the scenes”. CONCLUSION: The subjective experience of wellbeing and health after traumatic spinal cord injury depends upon the ability to prevent or resolve potentially embarrassing situations without this being noticed by others. Performing this work “behind the scenes”, enables persons with traumatic spinal cord injury to interact smoothly with others and thereby be perceived as normal, despite substantial disability.
  • Hemmingsson, Helena, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Eye-Gaze Control Technology as Early Intervention for a Non-Verbal Young Child with High Spinal Cord Injury : A Case Report
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Technologies. - : MDPI AG. - 2227-7080. ; 6:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assistive technology (AT) can be used as early intervention in order to reduce activity limitations in play and communication. This longitudinal case study examines eye-gaze control technology as early intervention for a young child with high spinal cord injury without the ability to make sounds. The young child was followed by repeated measures concerning performance and communication from baseline at 9 months to 26 months, and finalized at 36 months by field observations in the home setting. The results showed eye-gaze performance and frequency of use of eye-gaze control technology increased over time. Goals set at 15 months concerning learning and using the AT; naming objects and interactions with family was successfully completed at 26 months. Communicative functions regarding obtaining objects and social interaction increased from unintentional actions to purposeful choices and interactions. At 36 months, the toddler was partly independent in eye gazing, used all activities provided, and made independent choices. In conclusion, the results show that a 9-month-old child with profound motor disabilities can benefit from eye-gaze control technology in order to gradually perform activities, socially interact with family members, and make choices.
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