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  • Teede, Helena J, et al. (författare)
  • Recommendations from the 2023 International Evidence-based Guideline for the Assessment and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Fertility and sterility. - 1556-5653. ; 120:4, s. 767-793
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • What is the recommended assessment and management of those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise, and consumer preference?International evidence-based guidelines address prioritized questions and outcomes and include 254 recommendations and practice points, to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes in PCOS.The 2018 International PCOS Guideline was independently evaluated as high quality and integrated multidisciplinary and consumer perspectives from six continents; it is now used in 196 countries and is widely cited. It was based on best available, but generally very low to low quality, evidence. It applied robust methodological processes and addressed shared priorities. The guideline transitioned from consensus based to evidence-based diagnostic criteria and enhanced accuracy of diagnosis, whilst promoting consistency of care. However, diagnosis is still delayed, the needs of those with PCOS are not being adequately met, evidence quality was low and evidence-practice gaps persist.The 2023 International Evidence-based Guideline update reengaged the 2018 network across professional societies and consumer organizations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. Extensive evidence synthesis was completed. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation-II (AGREEII)-compliant processes were followed. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was applied across evidence quality, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation and ultimately recommendation strength and diversity and inclusion were considered throughout.This summary should be read in conjunction with the full Guideline for detailed participants and methods. Governance included a six-continent international advisory and management committee, five guideline development groups, and paediatric, consumer, and translation committees. Extensive consumer engagement and guideline experts informed the update scope and priorities. Engaged international society-nominated panels included paediatrics, endocrinology, gynaecology, primary care, reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics, psychiatry, psychology, dietetics, exercise physiology, obesity care, public health and other experts, alongside consumers, project management, evidence synthesis, statisticians and translation experts. Thirty-nine professional and consumer organizations covering 71 countries engaged in the process. Twenty meetings and five face-to-face forums over 12 months addressed 58 prioritized clinical questions involving 52 systematic and 3 narrative reviews. Evidence-based recommendations were developed and approved via consensus across five guideline panels, modified based on international feedback and peer review, independently reviewed for methodological rigour, and approved by the Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC).The evidence in the assessment and management of PCOS has generally improved in the past five years, but remains of low to moderate quality. The technical evidence report and analyses (∼6000 pages) underpins 77 evidence-based and 54 consensus recommendations, with 123 practice points. Key updates include: i) further refinement of individual diagnostic criteria, a simplified diagnostic algorithm and inclusion of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels as an alternative to ultrasound in adults only; ii) strengthening recognition of broader features of PCOS including metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, very high prevalence of psychological features, and high risk status for adverse outcomes during pregnancy; iii) emphasizing the poorly recognized, diverse burden of disease and the need for greater healthcare professional education, evidence-based patient information, improved models of care and shared decision making to improve patient experience, alongside greater research; iv) maintained emphasis on healthy lifestyle, emotional wellbeing and quality of life, with awareness and consideration of weight stigma; and v) emphasizing evidence-based medical therapy and cheaper and safer fertility management.Overall, recommendations are strengthened and evidence is improved, but remain generally low to moderate quality. Significantly greater research is now needed in this neglected, yet common condition. Regional health system variation was considered and acknowledged, with a further process for guideline and translation resource adaptation provided.The 2023 International Guideline for the Assessment and Management of PCOS provides clinicians and patients with clear advice on best practice, based on the best available evidence, expert multidisciplinary input and consumer preferences. Research recommendations have been generated and a comprehensive multifaceted dissemination and translation programme supports the Guideline with an integrated evaluation program.This effort was primarily funded by the Australian Government via the National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (APP1171592), supported by a partnership with American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Endocrine Society, European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology, and the Society for Endocrinology. The Commonwealth Government of Australia also supported Guideline translation through the Medical Research Future Fund (MRFCRI000266). HJT and AM are funded by NHMRC fellowships. JT is funded by a Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) fellowship. Guideline development group members were volunteers. Travel expenses were covered by the sponsoring organizations. Disclosures of interest were strictly managed according to NHMRC policy and are available with the full guideline, technical evidence report, peer review and responses (www.monash.edu/medicine/mchri/pcos). Of named authors HJT, CTT, AD, LM, LR, JBoyle, AM have no conflicts of interest to declare. JL declares grant from Ferring and Merck; consulting fees from Ferring and Titus Health Care; speaker's fees from Ferring; unpaid consultancy for Ferring, Roche Diagnostics and Ansh Labs; and sits on advisory boards for Ferring, Roche Diagnostics, Ansh Labs, and Gedeon Richter. TP declares a grant from Roche; consulting fees from Gedeon Richter and Organon; speaker's fees from Gedeon Richter and Exeltis; travel support from Gedeon Richter and Exeltis; unpaid consultancy for Roche Diagnostics; and sits on advisory boards for Roche Diagnostics. MC declares travels support from Merck; and sits on an advisory board for Merck. JBoivin declares grants from Merck Serono Ltd.; consulting fees from Ferring B.V; speaker's fees from Ferring Arzneimittell GmbH; travel support from Organon; and sits on an advisory board for the Office of Health Economics. RJN has received speaker's fees from Merck and sits on an advisory board for Ferring. AJoham has received speaker's fees from Novo Nordisk and Boehringer Ingelheim. The guideline was peer reviewed by special interest groups across our 39 partner and collaborating organizations, was independently methodologically assessed against AGREEII criteria and was approved by all members of the guideline development groups and by the NHMRC.
  • Pourhamidi, Kaveh, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of clinical tools and their diagnostic use in distal symmetric polyneuropathy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Primary care diabetes. - : Elsevier. - 1878-0210 .- 1751-9918. ; 8:1, s. 77-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To compare the diagnostic usefulness of tuning fork, monofilament, biothesiometer and skin biopsies in peripheral neuropathy in individuals with varying glucose metabolism.METHODS: Normoglycaemic, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) individuals were recruited. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and thermal threshold tests were performed. Vibrotactile sense was tested with a biothesiometer and a 128-Hz tuning fork. Touch/pressure perception was examined with a 10-g monofilament. Skin biopsies were performed and intraepidermal nerve fibres were quantified. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) was defined as neuropathy disability score ≥2 and abnormal NCS. Thermal threshold tests were used to define small nerve fibre neuropathy (sDSPN) in cases where NCS (large nerve fibres) were normal.RESULTS: The prevalence of DSPN and sDSPN in the whole group (n=119) was 18% and 23%, respectively. For the biothesiometer, a cut-off of ≥24.5V had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 70% (AUC=0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.91) when evaluating DSPN. An intraepidermal nerve fibre density cut-off of ≤3.39fibres/mm showed a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 70% in the detection of sDSPN, whereas the sensitivity of the tuning fork and the biothesiometer were relatively low, 46% and 67%, respectively. When combining skin biopsies with the tuning fork, 10 more sDSPN cases were identified. Adding skin biopsy to the combination of the tuning fork and biothesiometer increased the sensitivity of finding sDSPN cases, but not DSPN, from 81% to 93%.CONCLUSION: Using a biothesiometer in clinical routine might be a sensitive method to detect large nerve fibre dysfunction in the lower extremity, whereas skin biopsies in combination with methods measuring vibrotactile sense could increase the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting peripheral neuropathy at an early stage.
  • Lindgren, Marie, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • Survival and risk of vascular complications in myelofibrosis—A population-based study from the Swedish MPN group
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Haematology. - : Wiley. - 0902-4441 .- 1600-0609. ; 109:4, s. 336-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To gain knowledge of underlying risk factors for vascular complications and their impact on life expectancy in myelofibrosis. Methods: From a cohort of 392 myelofibrosis patients registered in the Swedish MPN registry 58 patients with vascular complications during follow-up were identified. Patients with vascular complications were compared with both 1:1 matched controls and the entire myelofibrosis cohort to explore potential risk factors for vascular complications and their impact on survival. Results: Incidence of vascular complications was 2.8 events per 100 patient-years and the majority of complications were thrombotic. Patients with complications were significantly older and had lower hemoglobin when compared to the entire cohort. In the case–control analysis, no significant risk factor differences were observed. The major cause of death was vascular complications and median survival was significantly impaired in patients with vascular complications (48 months) compared to controls (92 months). Inferior survival in patients with vascular complications was found to be dependent on IPSS risk category in a Cox regression model. Conclusion: Vascular complications have a considerable impact on survival in MF. At diagnosis, risk assessment by IPSS does not only predict survival but is also associated with the risk of vascular complications.
  • Gustafson, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • A factor analytic approach to symptom patterns in dementia.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : Hindawi Limited. - 2090-0252 .- 2090-8024.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous publications have shown a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three short clinical rating scales for Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD) validated against neuropathological (NP) diagnoses. In this study, the aim was to perform an exploratory factor analysis of the items in these clinical rating scales. The study included 190 patients with postmortem diagnoses of AD (n = 74), VaD (n = 33), mixed AD/VaD (n = 31), or FTD (n = 52). The factor analysis produced three strong factors. Factor 1 contained items describing cerebrovascular disease, similar to the Hachinski Ischemic Score. Factor 2 enclosed major clinical characteristics of FTD, and factor 3 showed a striking similarity to the AD scale. A fourth symptom cluster was described by perception and expression of emotions. The factor analyses strongly support the construct validity of the diagnostic rating scales.
  • Sjöholm, H, et al. (författare)
  • Necrosis of malignant gliomas after intratumoral injection of 201Tl in vivo in the rat
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Anti-Cancer Drugs. - 0959-4973. ; 6:1, s. 109-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fourteen adult Fischer 344 rats were inoculated in vivo unilaterally in the caudate nucleus in the brain with malignant RG 2 glioma cells. By 3 weeks a tumor with a diameter of 3-6 mm normally develops. Ten animals which survived the repeated periods of anesthesia and thallium (Tl) injections (intratumorally three times of 201Tl, 15-23 days after inoculation) showed a prolonged retention of radioactivity at the site of injection with no uptake in other organs except for the kidneys. Singular circumscribed necroses were found post-mortem at the site of injection, comprising malignant glioma tumor tissue, which in six animals was absent, in three animals was markedly reduced in size compared with controls and in one animal had the expected size. In four animals metastases were found in distant locations in the brain; in three of these cases there was a retention of radioactivity in the tumor. The selective necrotizing effect on the tumor cells is interpreted as mainly due to emission of Auger electrons from intracellularly accumulated 201Tl, giving rise to very high energy deposition in the vicinity of the cell nucleus. The results should also have implications for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
  • Klaff, Rami, 1971- (författare)
  • Disease-Specific Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients : Results from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5 and Regional Cancer Register Data
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • IntroductionProstate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in Sweden. The clinical course varies considerably, which makes it difficult to predict the prognosis in the individual case. In order to explore the early as well as the late course of the disease, large study groups and population-based cohorts are necessary.AimsTo explore factors that influence the long-term outcome of men with low-risk tumours in a population-based register, to predict the long-term course, and to assess the mortality rate for men with prostate cancer (Paper I)To analyse long-term outcome and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival in patients with metastases to the skeleton (Paper II)To analyse early androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) failure and to define clinical predictors associated with short survival due to early ADT failure in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases (Paper III)To analyse the prognostic significance of the extent of bone metastases in relation to other pretreatment variables in prostate cancer patients, and to explore the impact of bone metastases on quality-of-life (Paper IV)Material and methodsThe study groups were assembled from The South East Region Prostate Cancer Register (SERPCR), and The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG) Trial No. 5. In the first study, prognostic factors and long-term disease-specific mortality rates of low-risk prostate cancer patients from the early PSA era were analysed. In the second study, patient-related factors, quality-of-life (QoL) and long-term survival in 915 PCa patients with bone metastases (M1b) under ADT, were analysed. In Study III factors predicting primary failure to respond to ADT were identified. Study IV explored the impact of the extent of bone metastases on survival and QoL for these men.Result and conclusionsThe long-term disease-specific mortality of low-risk localised PCa is low, but the annual mortality rate gradually increases. This indicates that some tumours slowly develop into lethal cancer, particularly in men 70 years or older and with a PSA level ≥ 4 μg/L. From the SPCG Trial No. 5, a subgroup of patients with M1b disease and favourable set of predictive factors survived more than 10 years under ADT with an acceptable QoL. Independent predictors of long-term survival were identified as performance status (PS) < 2, limited extent of bone metastases, and a PSA level < 231 μg/L at the time of enrolment in the trial. However, four independent clinical predictors of early ADT failure could be defined. Men exhibiting these features should be considered for an alternative treatment. Patient grouping based on three categories of extent of bone metastases related to PS, haemoglobin, and QoL at presentation, as independent predictors of mortality, may provide improved accuracy of prognosis.
  • Naeser, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Survival in patients diagnosed with melanoma in situ compared to the general population. A Swedish population-based matched cohort study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: eClinicalMedicine. - : Elsevier. - 2589-5370. ; 65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS) is increasing even more rapidly than the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). No previous studies have in detail investigated the survival in individuals diagnosed with MIS compared to the general population.Methods: This population-based study included individuals with MIS diagnosed in Sweden between 2001 and 2010 and randomly selected MIS-free comparators matched on age, sex and county of residence. Exclusion criterion was a previous CMM. Data on socioeconomic status (SES) including educational level, income and marital status, comorbidity and cause of death were obtained from population-based registers. Overall survival (OS) was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The mortality risk adjusted for SES and comorbidity was assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses.Findings: The survival analyses included 7963 cases and 39,662 comparators. Median age at MIS diagnosis were 63 (IQR 50-75) and 67 (IQR 57-76) years in women and men respectively. Median follow-up time was 120 months (IQR 102-152 months). In individuals with MIS, the ten-year OS was 77% (95% CI 0.76-0.78) compared to 72% (95% CI 0.72-0.73) in comparators. The MIS patients had a higher SES and lower comorbidity burden than the comparators. In a fully adjusted multivariable analysis, including 7772 cases and 38,103 comparators, the mortality was significantly lower in women with MIS (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.94) compared to the background population. The corresponding estimate in men was HR 0.94 (95% CI 0.88-1.0). The risk of melanoma-related deaths during the study period was ten-fold higher in MIS patients.Interpretation: Despite being at increased risk of developing CMM, MIS patients had a better OS compared to their matched comparators from the background population, findings which could not fully be explained by differences in SES and comorbidity. Our results are reassuring and should be communicated to patients who have been diagnosed with MIS.
  • Slind Olsen, Renate (författare)
  • Circulating and genetic factors in colorectal cancer : Potential factors for establishing prognosis?
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is defined as a cancer appearing in the colon or in the rectum. In Sweden, ~ 6300 individuals were diagnosed with the disease in 2014 and ~ 2550 individuals diagnosed with CRC die each year due to their cancer. Surgery is the main treatment option of CRC and a survival rate of ~ 10 % is estimated if distant metastases have developed. It is therefore of importance to find factors that may be useful together with tumour, node, metastasis (TNM) stage to establish early CRC diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of CRC patients. The aim of this thesis was to study the possible association of CD93, PLA2G4C, PDGF-D and inflammatory cytokines with CRC disease progression.In a prospective study approach CD93 and PLA2G4C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were of potential importance in CRC prognosis.The T/T genotype of CD93 was associated with an increased CD93 expression in CRC tissue. Further, CRC patients carrying this genotype were associated with disseminated CRC at diagnosis and a lower recurrence-free survival after surgery. The A allele of a SNP of PLA2G4C was a stronger predictor for CRC-specific mortality than the conventional risk factors used in the clinic for selection of TNM stage II patients for adjuvant treatment. This indicates that the T/T genotype of CD93 and the A allele of PLA2G4C may be potential genetic factors related to disease severity and spread. Furthermore, they distinguish CRC patients that may benefit from a more comprehensive follow-up and adjuvant treatment.To study the putative involvement of PDGF-D in CRC the effects of PDGF-D signalling was studied in vitro. PDGF-D signalling altered the expression of genes of importance in CRC carcinogenesis and proliferation which was blocked by imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This indicates that PDGF-D signalling may be an important pathway in CRC progression and a potential target in CRC treatment.The analysis of various inflammatory cytokines in plasma at diagnosis showed an association between high levels and increased total- or CRC-specific mortality two years after surgery. High levels of CCL1 and CCL24 was the only cytokines strongly correlated with a worse CRC prognosis after statistical adjustments and may be of interest for further evaluation.In conclusion, this thesis presents circulating and genetic factors such as CD93, PLA2G4C, PDGF-D, CCL1 and CCL24 that may be of importance in CRC progression and may be of clinical value together with TNM stage in establishing prognosis.
  • Hagstrom, H., et al. (författare)
  • Morbidity, risk of cancer and mortality in 3645 HFE mutations carriers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Liver International. - : Wiley. - 1478-3223 .- 1478-3231. ; 41:3, s. 545-553
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims Mutations in the HFE gene can lead to hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) and have been suggested to increase the risk of extra-hepatic diseases, especially breast and colorectal cancer. Here we investigated long-term outcomes of Swedish patients with HFE mutations. Methods We identified 3645 patients with a homozygous p.C282Y (62%) or a compound heterozygous p.C282Y/p.H63D (38%) mutation from eight centres in Sweden between 1997 and 2017. These were matched 1:10 by age, sex and county of residence to reference individuals from the general population. We ascertained incident outcomes until the end of 2017 by linkage to national registers. Studied outcomes were HH, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), breast cancer (in women), colorectal cancer, type 1 and 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism, Parkinson's disease and mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for these outcomes. Results Median age at diagnosis was 52 years, 44% were females. During a mean follow-up of 7.9 years, we found an increased risk for HCC, HH, cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and death. Excess mortality was only seen in men. No increased risk was seen for colorectal or breast cancer. Liver-related outcomes were rare, with a cumulative incidence of HFE mutation carriers in a university hospital setting had an increased risk for mortality in men, along with increased risks of cirrhosis, HCC, diabetes type 2, and osteoarthritis. In general, the absolute risk for adverse outcomes was low and no increased risk for colon or breast cancer was observed.
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